The Anti-Irish Riots of Philadelphia 1844
Including the text of A Full and Complete Account of the Awful Riots in Philadelphia
George J. Holmes
The book can be purchased in the entirety you see here (click here)
Along the banks of the Delaware River stands a new monument commemorating the immigrants who came from Ireland to Philadelphia in the 1800s. Leaving religious and political persecution, as well as famine, these newcomers came in search of a better life with new opportunities. This book illustrates that their dreams of a new life could only be realized after hardship and struggles.
By Ron Avery
The middle of the 19th century was a particularly lawless and turbulent time for American cities, and Philadelphia with its very diverse population was one of the most violent. Historians have identified 50 violent Philadelphia street gangs during the era with such colorful names as the Killers, the Blood Tubs, the Schuylkill Rangers, the Neckers and the Snappers. The gangs fought each other and often attacked innocent citizens on the streets. Riots were commonplace. The city’s relatively large African-American community was often the victim of mob attacks. In 1834, Irish Catholics fought with Irish Protestants during a parade by the Orangemen.
However, the bloodiest riots of the era, without question, exploded in the summer of 1844 when Protestant “Native Americans” battled Irish Catholics in a two-part street war that left about 25 dead and more than 100 wounded and injured. Two large Catholic churches, a rectory and a seminary were burned to the ground and scores of houses set on fire. The violence shocked the consciousness of city leaders and would lead to dramatic changes to include the establishment of a fulltime, paid police force, a dramatic expansion of the city’s borders and the establishment of America’s strongest Catholic school system.
Although Ireland’s great potato famine was still a few years in the future, large numbers of poor Irish Catholics immigrants were pouring into America’s cities. By the time of the 1844 riots Irish immigrants formed about 10 percent of the population of Philadelphia County. The Irish were the victims of a great deal of bigoted stereotyping, usually portrayed as ignorant, brawling drunkards. Worse, they were a “foreign” element not to be trusted. Their loyalty was not to their new nation but to a “Papist” church, its “evil priests” and “despotic Pope.” Inflammatory anti-Catholic pamphlets proclaimed that once the Irish population was large enough, they would take over America. Led by “wily Jesuit priests” they would install a Catholic king who would take his orders from the Pope.
Anti-Catholic Protestants calling themselves “Native Americans” or “Nativists” formed political parties in major cities. They were sometimes called the “Know Nothings”. The party formed in Philadelphia called itself the American Republicans (not related to the later Republican Party). The Nativists’ platform called for laws that would prohibit the foreign-born from holding any elective office – state, local or national. And if native-born Americans had to wait 21 years to vote, then naturalized citizens should also wait 21 years. So an Irish immigrant who arrives in America at age 21 would have to wait until his 42nd birthday to cast his first vote.
One issue that led to the bloody riots of 1844, centered on Bible reading in the public schools. School boards believed that the Bible was the source of all good moral teaching and required Bible readings and study in the classroom. The Bible being read was, of course, the Protestant King James version. Catholic Bishop Francis Patrick Kendrick, normally a quiet, conservative man, took a strong stand against Catholic children being forced to read and study from anything but their own Catholic Douay version of the Bible. There was a compromise allowing Catholic students to leave the class during Bible study and read their own Catholic Bible. But the controversy inflamed Nativists who saw the “Papists” arrogantly inserting Catholism into the public schools.
The Bible controversy led to a public rally by the American Republican Party to be held on Friday, May 3, 1844. The location selected for the rally almost guaranteed that sparks (and bricks and bullets) would fly. The rally was to be held outside the narrow boundaries of the city of Philadelphia. Those boundaries were South Street to Vine Street, the Delaware River to the Schuylkill River – a mere two square miles.
The rally was scheduled for the Kensington District near Second and Master Streets. Although Protestant lived in the area, it was heavily Irish Catholic. The location was close to St. Michael’s Roman Catholic Church and a roof-covered, open-air marketplace known as the Nanny Goat Market or Washington Street Market, frequented by Irish residents.
Only one hundred Nativists attended the rally. Speakers were hooted down and harassed by the Irish and soon the meeting “adjourned” with the Protestants beating a hasty retreat. There was no real fighting or injuries that Friday.
Three days later the Know Nothings were back again in the vicinity of the Nanny Goat Market about 3,000 strong. A sudden rainstorm forced the Protestants to seek cover in the market shed and soon, fist, bricks and musket balls were flying. It was the beginning of a three-day battle that would shake the city.
Irish militants shooting from nearby houses, and a volunteer fire company, the Hibernia Hose Company had the initial advantage. The first death was an 18-year-old Protestant apprentice, George Schiffler. He would be portrayed as a martyr who died protecting the American flag.
But Protestant militants – who flocked into the area from other neighborhoods - were also well-armed and resorted to fire as a weapon. Many Irish homes – some were flimsy back-alley shanties – went up in flames. Irish families fled the neighborhood. Protestant neighbors hung American flags in their windows to indicate their loyalty.
Where were the police during three days of bloodshed? There was no police force as we know it today. Instead, County Sheriff Morton McMichael had a small force of constables. He could deputize good citizens to form a sheriff’s posse, but in the case of this “holy war” in Kensington, this wouldn’t be enough. Instead, he called on the local militia, headed by General George Cadwalader, who questioned whether the sheriff had the power to request the militia. Normally, only the governor had such powers. When the general did decide to come to the sheriff’s aid, it took time to organize the troops, who were all civilian citizen-soldiers.
It was too little, too late. St. Michael’s Church was burned to the ground; the mob cheered as the cross atop the church tumbled. The mob also burned the church rectory and the seminary of the Sisters of Mercy next to the church. For good measure, large Saint Augustine’s Church, inside city limits at 4th near Vine, was set afire and destroyed. Again firemen were prevented from fighting the blaze by the mob, which also cheered when its steeple and cross fell in flames.
Round One was over. More militia poured into the city. Martial law was declared and the remaining Catholic churches were put under heavy guard. Things were relatively quiet for two months. Round Two broke out in the Southwark District (now called Queen Village) on July 9th. It was an even bloodier affair with the Nativist mob battling the militia. Both sides employed cannon in the narrow streets around 2nd and Queen Streets.
The tension centered on St. Philip Neri Chruch on Queen Street between Second and Third. Catholics were now determined to protect their churches, and Pennsylvania Governor David Porter gave permission to St. Philip’s to stockpile government-issued weapons in the church. This was a provocative red flag to the Nativists. To their minds, the hated Papists had turned a church into an “armed fortress.” On the other hand, respectable Philadelphians were determined to avoid more rioting and church burnings.
Militia leaders Cadwalader and General Robert Patterson were embarrassed by the militia’s inability to halt the arson and rioting in Kensington. They were going to take a tough stand with the mob in Southwark. But they made some bad decisions, such as using the all-Irish Hibernian Greens militia unit to guard the church. At one point Cadwalader ordered his troops to fire on the Protestant mob when it failed to disburse. A former congressman, Charles Naylor, jumped in front of the militia’s guns shouting “My God. Don’t shoot.” His bravely temporarily prevented bloodshed, but Cadwalader had him arrested.
The next day, the mob attacked the Hibernian Greens as they left the church to be replaced by another unit. The hot-headed Cadwalader arrived with reinforcements on the night of July 9th and an all-out battle was fought on the dark, narrow streets until dawn, with cannon, muskets, pistols, bricks, rifles and bayonets. St. Philip Neri was saved but 16 died, including some militiamen, and more than 50 were wounded.
The riots of 1844 led to major changes. Now everyone saw the need for a fulltime, paid police force. But a police force would have done no good in either Kensington or Southwark. Both were outside the city’s narrow limits. It took some time to arrange, but in 1854, all of Philadelphia County was consolidated into one large city. The City of Philadelphia went from two square miles to its present size of 129 square miles. A 900-man police force was hired to patrol the sprawling city and enforce order.
Bishop Kendrick gave up his fight involving Bible readings in the public schools and began to develop a large parochial school system, which remains strong till this day.
St. Michael’s and St. Augustine’s Churches were rebuilt on their original sites. St. Philip Neri Church looks pretty much today as it looked in 1844 during the fighting. The National Republican Party enjoyed an upsurge in membership and success at the polls, which ebbed after a few years.
It is unclear who actually wrote the book A Full and Complete Account of the late Awful Riots in Philadelphia. The publisher is John B. Perry, who is listed in the 1844 city directory as a bookbinder and stationer. At the time a “stationer” meant a publisher or bookseller, and Perry appears to be both. He advertised a list of short, mostly non-fiction books. Most were on sensational subjects such as crimes, murders, pirates and a sex manual.
Awful Riots was a pocket-sized book about four inches high and 36-pages in length. It most likely sold for 25 cents.
At first, the book appears to be sympathetic to the Nativists. It talks of the Irish mob chasing away “men who had assembled peaceably to express their sentiments, as, by the Constitution of the United States, all citizens have an undeniable right.” Later the author expresses sympathy with the Irish who were driven from their homes by the mob. Referring to the Irish residents of Kensington, the author writes: “We know many of them, and American hearts beat within their bosoms.”
The author sometimes writes in the third-person “we.” For instance, “We have just returned from the scene of the riot.” But who the mysterious “we” is, remains a mystery.
The book does give an accurate account of what happened. And the author is anguished by what he sees. “What a deplorable fact we have here! A mob in virtual possession of the city and county of Philadelphia! The law defied with impunity! Lives and property sacrificed in a desperate and terrible conflict, and anarchy and riots amounting to almost civil war, without a parallel in the history of our State.”
Ron Avery is a veteran newspaper journalist, including 16 years with the Philadelphia Daily News. An expert in Philadelphia history, he has written several books on the subject including The Concise History of Philadelphia and Philadelphia Beyond the Liberty Bell, a guide to places of interest in the city.
The following is a reproduction of a 19th century document as it appeared in its original state. All spelling and grammatical errors are as they appeared in the original.
The above is a faithful portrait of one of the steamer Princeton's rough and ready for battle Jack-tars, armed and equipped as a "Boarder," who, among some two hundred others similarly arrayed for active service, promptly obeyed the orders of their commander, Capt. R.F. Stockman, to render efficient aid, in quelling the late riots.
FULL AND COMPLETE ACCOUNT
OF THE LATE
THE unprecendented success of the newly organised party in the city of New York, who recently elected their candidate (Mr. Harper,) for Mayor, gave an impetus to the party in Philadelphia, who, some weeks since started a daily journal under the name, of "The Native American,", and have since been industriously placing before the public the political sentiments they advocate; and on the afternoon of Friday last (May 3d, 1844,) they called a meeting at the junction of Second and Master streets, Kensington. The meeting had organised, and one of the speakers was addressing the crowd, when, all at once, a rush from a concourse of Irish people, residing in that immediate vicinity, and who had surrounded the meeting, took place. The native Americans, so fiercely were they assailed by an overpowering force, were driven from the staging they had erected, and fled in all directions, pursued by the missiles and shouts of the Irish. This, of course, incensed men who had assembled peaceably to express their sentiments, as by the Constitution of the United States all citizens have an undeniable right.
Another meeting was called by the Native Americans, to be held at the same place on the afternoon of Monday, May 7th, and at an early hour a large number of persons were on the ground, from all parts of the city and county. "No one will hesitate to say," are the remarks of the Public Ledger, "that the Native American party having called a public meeting, had a perfect right to carry on their proceedings in peace, undisturbed by any persons, and that the disturbance they met with from persons opposed to the objects of the meeting, was as gross an outrage as was ever perpetrated upon the rights of any body of free citizens. The citizens who composed the meeting were assembled in the exercise of a right which is guaranteed to them by the Constitution, and it has come to a pretty pass, if, availing themselves of their constitutional rights, they are to be assailed by others, and their lives sacrificed in the streets.
"They were assembled by public call, their object being a perfectly legal one, and the presumption is that those who were opposed to the meeting were attracted there from some mischievous motive. They were not embraced in the call; they could have had no proper object in being present at, or in the neighborhood of the meeting, and the consequences which resulted, indicate very plainly the folly, if not to say the wickedness of their designs, in going in numbers to the place. The presumption that mischief was intended is confirmed by the conduct of a reckless set of ruffians, who, a few evenings before, broke up a meeting assembled for a similar purpose. Such conduct as this is not to be tolerated with impunity in any country, much less in ours, where the hand of fellowship and good feeling has always been extended to the emigrant from other shores, and political equality so liberally offered them. It is but a poor return for these favors, if they are to turn round and strike at the liberty and rights of those who have so generously given them the power to do so."
After the staging had been erected against the fence of the Public School House, on the open lot, and the flag raised over it, three hearty cheers were given, and the meeting organised by the Secretary reading the proceedings of the former meeting.
Mr. Kramer was then called, and took his stand, when he proceeded to conclude the speech which he had commenced at the meeting on Friday afternoon. General Smith was then called, who, at some length, addressed the meeting, during which the greatest order and enthusiasm prevailed. Upon a call made, Mr. Levin took the stand, but had not proceeded far before a storm of wind and rain came on.
Many persons ran from the meeting, to seek shelter elsewhere, but the majority adjourned over to the market, on Washington street, above Master. During the time they were running in this direction, to avoid the rain, a great deal of hallooing and shouting was kept up, and every one in the street seemed to be excited, but apparently with no angry feelings.
A few minutes after the meeting was re-organised under the market house, a commotion occurred from some cause or other, and some twelve or fifteen persons ran out of the market, on the west side, pursued by about an equal number. A scuffle ensued; two desperate fellows clinched each other, one armed with a brick, and the other with a club, and exchanged a dozen blows, any one of which seemed severe enough to kill an ordinary man. Some stones and bricks were now thrown on both sides, and several pistol shots were fired by persons on both sides. At the report of the fire-arms, the majority of the meeting dispersed precipitately, while a number took position at the south end of the market, where they displayed the American flag.
Several stones were thrown against the Hibernia Hose House, situate in Cadwalader street, west of the market, and some persons were pursued up Master street. A frame house in the latter street, between Cadwalader street and the Germantown Road, was stormed, and the windows and doors demolished. Two other frames in Cadwalader street, below Master, shared the same fate. Two or three muskets were discharged at this time by the retreating party, and a rally attempted. The persons who had been in the meeting still kept their ground, and volleys of bricks and stones were continually kept up by both sides. A number of persons, evidently Irishmen, then rallied at Germantown Road and Master street, and came down at a brisk pace upon the others with stones and two or three guns. The Native Americans retreated, but maintained a fire with stones, and one or two pistols. Several persons were severely wounded at this point of time, and the rioters became furious. The Native Americans again rallied, and recovered a temporary advantage, but finally retreated, under a sharp fire of every kind of missiles, and two or three discharges of a musket carried by a gray-headed Irishman who wore a seal-skin cap.
During the firing a young man, named George Shifler, between eighteen and nineteen years of age, living in St. John Street, near Beaver, was shot under the right arm while on the Germantown Road, below Master street. The charge of the piece fired entered his chest. He was carried off the ground to the drug store of Mr. Bowers, at the junction of Germantown Road and St. John Street, where he lingered for a few moments and died. Dr. McAvoy, dressed the wound. Another young man named Henry Temper, in the employ of Mr. Lee, barber, on the Frankford road, while engaged on the side of the Native Americans, received a shot in his side, which glanced off the hip bone and only produced a flesh wound. He received several small shots in the legs. He was attended by Dr. Bethel, who considers his case no way dangerous. Thomas Ford was struck in the forehead with a spent ball, which did him but slight injury. Another, named Lawrence Cox, had his hip seriously injured, in what way we did not learn.
Patrick Fisher, late constable of the ward, was shot in the face, but not dangerously wounded. It is said that he was the first one who received injury from fire arms, and that it occurred on the western side of the market house, soon after the fighting commenced.
While the contest raged with its greatest fury, the main body of the belligerent parties were posted east and west of the market house, in Master street, each rallying and retreating in turns, while others were engaged in skirmishes in every direction, for some distance round. Houses were attacked, and the inmates driven out with the utmost consternation and alarm. While a party of the Irish were being pursued down Cadwallader street, below Master, a man fell into the doorway of the residence of Edward Develin, and in consequence of the first floor being below the pavement he rolled into the house. Mr. Develin was sitting at the door, and in an instant retreated inside, when between the two the front door was shut. The house was then assailed by the pursuing party with brickbats and stones, some of the latter weighing seven or eight pounds, the windows and window frames broken out, and the place otherwise spoiled. Mr. D. was struck with the gutter pipe, which was wrenched off by a man, and his wife with two or three children narrowly escaped injury.
The house of John Lafferty, on the Germantown Road, above Master street, was battered with missiles and the interior injured. The adjoining house, occupied by a widow lady, named Brady, who was in at the time, with two or three females, was most shamefully mutilated. The panels of the front doors were knocked out, the windows broken, large stones thrown into the parlor, which destroyed the looking-glasses, tables, and other pieces of furniture. Some of the articles of furniture were taken by piecemeal from the room and broken. The cause of attack here was on account of a man, who was pursued, running into the alley way. The house of Michael Quin, in Master Street, above Cadwallader, was attacked and battered and some of his furniture demolished.
When this attack was made, his wife was sitting in the room, with a child upon her lap; they escaped injury. The adjoining dwelling of John Lavary was battered both in front and on the rear, facing the east, the doors and windows being completely demolished.
Other houses in the neighbourhood were more or less injured. At the commencement of the melee, when fire arms were discharged from both parties between the market house and Cadwallader street, a ball was fired into the door of the dwelling of John Brown, carter, just at the moment he had gone into the house and closed the door. The ball was subsequently found in the front room. In this street a large number of stones were thrown at and into the Hibernia Hose company's house.
The Irish population were in a dreadful state of excitement, and even women and boys joined in the affray, some of the women actually throwing missiles. Many of them when they temporarily retreated, returned armed with fire arms, which they discharged sometimes with particular aim at individuals engaged on the other side, and at other times firing indiscriminately in the several groups, on the larger body of the belligerents.
Many of the women who were not engaged with weapons, incited the men to vigorous action, pointing out where they could operate with more effect, and cheering them on and rallying them to a renewal of the conflict whenever their spirits fell or they were compelled to retreat.
As in most other riots which we have noticed in our city and county, small and half grown boys formed no inconsiderable portion of the combatants on both sides, and contended with the most sanguinary spirit.
From what we could see and gather from persons on the spot, we believe the following is the origin of the affray.
After the re-organisation of the meeting in the market house, and Mr. Levin had taken his position with the view of resuming his speech, some difficulty occurred on the Western side of the market house, just inside, between two persons, named Fields and M'Laughlin, which originated in some discussion, and led to an interference on the part of two or three others, one of whom, a young fellow, drew a pair of pistols, threatening to shoot the first man who should dare molest him. At this instant, a man who had taken some part in the affair stepped off towards the Hibernia Hose house, and defied him to fire. A shot then took place, which was followed by repeated discharges from both sides, from one of which Patrick Fisher received his wounds.
The contest continued for more than an hour. At dark, large bodies of men and boys were congregated at various points, and every thing indicated a resumption of the outrages. The Sheriff was on the ground after the severest part of the conflict, and was effecting arrangements to secure future peace and quietness. Those that were injured were engaged in the fight.
Twelve o'clock.-We have just returned from the scene of the riot. About ten o'clock in the evening, a mob collected in the vicinity of Franklin and Second Streets, and commenced breaking into the houses on both sides of the street, destroying the furniture, demolishing the windows, and rendering the houses completely uninhabitable. The inmates of all the dwellings in the neighborhood fled with precipitation, abandoning their homes to the ruthlessness of the mob.
This continued for some time, without any resistance being offered. At length an attack was made upon a Seminary at the corner of Second and Phoenix streets, formerly occupied by the Sisters of Charity, and a number of persons were about tearing down and setting fire to the fence, when some persons advanced from above, and fired a volley of ball and buckshot among the crowd.
This was followed by two or three succeeding volleys, when the crowd dispersed. Several persons fell, severely wounded. A young man, named Nathan Ramsey, blind maker, in Third street, above Brown, received a shot through the breast bone, perforating his lungs, and he was carried from the ground to an apothecary store in Second street, above the junction of Germantown Road. Here he was visited by his wife and mother, who appeared almost distracted. The young man was mortally wounded.
Another young man, named John W. Wright, son of Archibald Wright, salt merchant, residing in Fourth street, near Tammany, was shot through the head and killed instantly. He was not participating in the riot, but was in conversation with a friend, about sixty yards below the Seminary, when he fell. He was carried to the same place where Mr. Ramsey lay, and his father had his remains removed when our reporter left.
It is supposed that a number of others have fallen at the back part of the Seminary, but have been left lying there in consequence of the danger of returning to carry them away. We saw numbers who were, more
or less injured in the fight, some with bullet holes in their clothes, and there must be a great number of persons wounded by the frequent discharge of fire-arms. Bonfires had been lighted in various sections, and were burning all the evening, but by whom they were lighted we are not informed.
Several individuals who had left their homes during the day were afraid to return, some of them having left wives with small children unprotected. It having been rumored that an attempt would be made to fire the Catholic Church on Second street, many of the residents retired from their houses to it, with arms, determined to protect it at the hazard of their lives. Up to twelve o'clock, no attempt upon the church had been made. At that hour, individuals were seen leaving the neighborhood. The greatest consternation prevailed; no man knowing at what moment he would be shot down, nor by whom. Squads of men on all sides were armed, and the passer-by or looker-on was at no place safe from harm. Fire-arms were discharged from houses, and behind fences, and from alley ways.
About this time there was an alarm of fire, which was caused by the burning of a barn on Turner's Lane, below the Ridge Road. Many of the fire companies proceeded to the scene of the riot, under the impression that the cause of the alarm proceeded from a fire in that quarter.
Half-past One o'clock.-Mr. Ramsey has just been taken from the drug store, still alive, with some hopes of his recovery, the ball having taken a different direction from what was at first supposed. It has been ascertained that ten or twelve persons were wounded, some severely, during the last affray, five of whom were taken to one house in the vicinity. The scene of the riot is now quiet, and no further outrages anticipated.
Great excitement prevailed throughout the city, in consequence of the riot and bloodshed, on the
following day, Tuesday 7th. An immense meeting of the Native American party was held in the State House Yard. The meeting was called at half past three, P. M. The meeting was organised by the appointment of the following officers.
President-Thomas R. Newbold.
Vice Presidents-A. De Kalb Tarr, Rev. John Gihon, of the Universalist church, Thomas D. Grover, J. C. Green, and J. D. Fox.
Secretaries-James L. Gihon, A. R. Peale, and Lewis C. Levin.
The President opened the meeting with a few appropriate remarks, in which he deprecated all violence, and exhorted the meeting to maintain a strict decorum on the occasion, and in their deportment as native Americans. He was followed by W. Hollingshead, Esq., who spoke in an easy and quiet manner, exhorting the meeting to adhere firmly to the principles of the Native American doctrines, and urging forbearance towards opponents as the best mode of securing the success of those doctrines. He was enthusiastically applauded.
Mr. Levin was loudly called for, but did not appear. Col. C. J. Jack, then came forward, and made a speech, in which he said, that he had been a long time opposed to the influence of foreigners in elections, and had, at least two years ago, urged upon the citizens the necessity of organising a regiment of Native American volunteers, to sustain the native citizens and the laws against the aggressions of foreigners. He had been, he said, in some degree, a marked man in consequence of the expression of such principles; but he did not shrink from personal consequences, and hoped yet to witness the eradication of every party principle or institution in the land which was not purely American. Col. Jack was much applauded. The Rev. John Perry, next came forward, and submitted a series of resolutions, referring to the late tumult in Kensington, urging the adoption of peaceable measures to secure the objects of the party; proposing that a collection be taken up among Native Americans for the benefit of the families of those who were killed or wounded during the riot of Monday night; approving of the resolutions passed at the meeting held on Monday evening, at the Assembly Building, and proposing that this meeting should adjourn until Thursday next.
The resolutions, excepting the last, were adopted by acclamation. When the vote was about to he taken on the adjournment, a great number of voices cried out, "adjourn to Second and Master streets now"-"let us go up into Kensington," and a hearty shout was given to the proposition. Few persons voted for the adjournment to Thursday next, while the “noes” were given in a voice of thunder and with great applause. A motion was then made to adjourn to Second and Master streets forthwith. The President asked leave to make a few remarks upon this motion, but the meeting became impatient. He, however, obtained an opportunity to exhort them again to a peaceable deportment, and expressed a hope that if they did go up into Kensington they would remain perfectly quiet and comport themselves as good and orderly citizens. The motion to adjourn to the scene of the riot in Kensington was then carried by acclamation, and in a few minutes the thousands who composed the meeting were on their way in high spirits for the place designated.
Continuation of the Riots-More Bloodshed.-The scene of the riots of Monday afternoon, in Kensington, was quiet during yesterday morning, and many families were removing from their dwellings. In the early part of the afternoon large numbers of people were gathered in various quarters, but were peaceable and orderly. Between four and five o'clock the crowds of individuals became great, until they numbered in the aggregate at different points two or three thousand. The greater part of them, were however, considerably below the scene of the riot. After the adjournment of the Native American meeting, which was held in the State House Yard, a large body went into Kensington in procession, with a banner and flag. They immediately repaired to the market house, when great excitement ensued, and the rioting was renewed. Shots were fired from several of the houses opposite, and one young man killed, and several wounded. The houses from which the shots were discharged were assailed.
The house of the Hibernia Hose Company was attacked, and a borrowed carriage taken out, but not injured. The firing during this, was continued from the houses, and a number were wounded while standing near and in the market house. Down to six o clock the following were the killed and wounded as far as could be ascertained.
J. Wesley Rhinedollar, who was standing near the market, was shot dead.
George Young, a resident of Southwark, received a ball in his breast, which passed out of his back near the shoulder blade. He was carried to Dr. Griffith's, on Second street, from whence he was afterwards removed, with but slight hopes of his recovery. Since dead.
Augustus Peale, a resident of the city, received a ball in his left arm, which was shattered severely. His arm has been amputated.Matthew Hamit, shipwright, a resident of Kensington, was shot dead.
Lewis Greible, a resident of Southwark, was shot through the head, and died instantly.
Peter Albright was wounded in the hand by a ball or slug.
Wright Ardis was shot in the hip, said to be a dangerous wound.
William E. Hillman, a resident of Kensington, received a shot in his right shoulder, thought to be serious. Since dead.
James Whitaker was shot in the right thigh, and bone splintered.
Charles Orte, a resident of the Northern Liberties, was wounded.
Henry Hesselpoth, residing at the corner of Poplar lane and Third street, received a shot in the fleshy part of the hand.
Willis H. Blaney received a shot in the leg.
John Lusher, a resident of Kensington, shot in the breast, taken home and not expected to survive. Since dead.
Many others received shots in various parts of the body, whose names and residences in the excitement and consternation of the scene we were unable to ascertain. A Mr. Lawrence, while standing on Second street, received a shot which fortunately struck against a penny in his vest pocket, and did him no further injury than that which the shock caused. Other equally as narrow escapes were made all around. One small boy, while standing near the market house, was struck with a ball on the lower part of the abdomen, which, luckily, just grazed the skin. During the latter part of the afternoon, the houses on Cadwalader street, north of Master, were fired, and continued burning for several hours. No fire apparatus was put in requisition. It is said that several companies made attempts to reach the spot, but were prevented. The extent of damages by the fire, up to this time, cannot be ascertained.
From appearances, we judge that some ten or twelve buildings were consumed.
The excitement in the vicinity of the infected districts was tremendous. Throughout Kensington and the Northern Liberties, the side-walks, and almost every corner of the street, were crowded with persons going to, and returning from the scene of the riot, or standing in groups discussing the progress of events, or listening to the relations of those who had witnessed any part of these lamentable occurrences. Rumors of the number of killed and wounded were flying about in every direction, with such exaggerations and coloring as the imaginations of the relators prompted. It was stated, that at the firing on the commencement of the affray, some eight or ten persons fell - some killed, and others wounded.
A man named Hunneker was said to have been killed, and his body lay in the market for a long time without his friends being able to recover it. Whenever a party approached for the purpose of carrying off the slain, or rendering succor to the wounded, they were fired upon from the houses, and compelled to desist. We give these only as rumors, of course, as we were not disposed to approach near enough to ascertain the fact, and run the risk of receiving a bullet, while the fight lasted. In addition to the persons named who were hurt, we have been informed that a young man, named Maitland, residing somewhere in South street, was shot through the head and killed.
Another man, whose name we could not ascertain, had his ankle shattered by a musket ball. A person
named Parry, said to reside in Locust Ward, was wounded, but to what extent we could not ascertain.
The Irish were covered by the houses in which they were entrenched, and of course the fire of their assailants could not produce much effect. After the buildings had been fired, however, they were compelled to show themselves, and we hear that a number of them were seen to fall. The extent of their loss could not be ascertained, as it was impossible to approach them without being in danger of being fired upon.
At about one o'clock yesterday, General Cadwalader issued orders for the assembling of the whole military force of the first brigade, for the suppression of any riotous attempts that should be made during the evening. He had been waited on by the Sheriff, on Monday night, but declined issuing orders at that time. He, however, afterwards satisfied himself that the emergency had arisen when a resort to military force became necessary, and he convened the officers of his brigade yesterday morning, at the Military Hall, Library street, where, after a long discussion, a resolution was unanimously adopted, expressing the readiness of the officers to obey the call of General Cadwalader, upon the requisition of the Sheriff, whenever the former should be satisfied the emergency had arisen which demanded their aid in preserving the public peace. General Cadwalader repeated, that by an actual observation of the scene of riot on the previous night, that military force alone could prevent or suppress further riots, and issued his orders at once. The meeting was numerously attended, and although a difference of opinion prevailed upon some delicate points of propriety, all agreed to give a cheerful and effective response to the orders of the General, whenever he found it necessary to issue them. Mr. McMichael, the Sheriff, was present, and stated that it would be futile to invoke the civil posse, as the rioters were well armed and desperate, and could only be overawed by an imposing and active military force.
About dark, General Cadwalader, with his brigade, proceeded to the spot, and took a position near the scene of the conflagration. The appearance of the military had the effect to produce quiet, and from the time they arrived the firing almost entirely ceased.
Half-past Twelve o’clock.-The fire was raging when the military came upon the ground, having enveloped some twenty or thirty buildings, and the Washington Market house in flames. The firemen refused to approach the scene of conflagration, for fear of being fired upon, until military escorts guarded three or four hose carriages and two engines to the ground. Some water was thrown upon the smoking ruins, which prevented the fire from extending beyond the row of frames to the west and north of the market house, but they, together with the market, were reduced to a heap of ashes.
At one o'clock all was quiet. General Cadwalader leaped the fence of the Catholic Chapel in the neighborhood, which it was reported was filled with armed people, found that the report was incorrect, and took possession of the building. He stationed guards in different positions, so as to form a cordon around the district in which the riot has been raging; both the belligerent parties have dispersed, and if the military remain upon the ground, all the disturbance will be at an end.
Nathan Ramsey, who was shot through the breast at the Sisters of Charity Seminary, on Monday evening,
still lies very low at his residence. He has been visited by a number of physicians, and it is their opinion that
his chances of recovery are but slight.
George Young, who received a wound yesterday through the breast, lies in a sinking condition, in a
house adjoining the Commissioners' Hall, Northern Liberties. The number of wounded must be very great, but there is no way by which they can be estimated.
Willis II. Blaney, mentioned above, was shot through the heel, the ball passing in at one side and out at the other. At first it was not painful, but it subsequently caused him considerable uneasiness. He was exhorting those engaged in the fight to leave the ground, at the time he received the wound.
It is now to be hoped that the citizens will not approach the ground to-day; that the idle and mischievous rumors of arms in the Catholic church and school house, will be discontinued, since General Cadwalader has taken possession of the same; and that the military may remain in the vicinity for the purpose of acting promptly in suppressing another outbreak, should any disorderly symptoms appear.
Correction.-William Wright, was the name of the young man killed on Monday night, in Kensington, the son of Archibald Wright, senior partner of A. Wright & Nephew, salt merchants, on Vine Street wharf.
Arrests.-Yesterday morning, two men, named John O'Connor, and Owen Daley, were arrested, and taken before Alderman Boileau. They were taken from a house in Second street, near Master, where the fragments of a fowling piece, alleged to have burst on Monday night, and tore off the hand of the man who fired it, were found, and some bed linen, marked with blood. A gun, loaded with about an ounce and a half of slugs, was also found in the same building. The testimony given did not charge them with any direct offence, and they were held to bail for a further hearing, in their own recognizances.
John Taggert, charged with the shooting of Rhinedollar, was arrested yesterday afternoon, and taken
before Alderman Boileau. He was committed, and put into the custody of an officer, to be taken to prison. The crowd that followed to the office, upon his being taken out, resisted the efforts of the officer to execute the commitment. On the way down Second street, he was beset by the mob, who were excited to the highest pitch, and beaten and battered in the most awful manner. Propositions were made to hang him, and a rope was put around his neck, with which he was dragged some distance, until he was completely exhausted, and supposed to be dead. After this he was taken to the Northern Liberty watch house, where, it appears, he revived, and was still living at the last accounts. It was alleged that he was seen to discharge a heavy musket twice, and when arrested he had it in his possession, charged with a ten-finger load.
What a deplorable fact have we here! A mob in virtual possession of the city and county of Philadelphia! The law defied with impunity! Lives and property sacrificed in a desperate and terrible conflict, and anarchy and riots, amounting almost to civil war, without a parallel in the history of our State.
Well may it be asked, with regret and apprehension, what will be the ultimate results of such a fearful state of things? Are our liberties to be surrendered to the rash and headlong domination of mobs, or are we to fly from this great evil to the lesser one of a consolidated military police? To one or other of these extremities we seem to be rapidly approaching and unless the moral atmosphere of our city be thoroughly purged, we must be content to suffer all the horrors of sanguinary tumults, reckless invasions of right and liberty, and a blind and indiscriminate destruction of property, or submit to be dragooned into an obedience to the law. An
awful responsibility rests with those who have caused and promoted these calamities, and are yet stimulating to their continuance, and their reward must and will be the abhorrence of all good men and the anathemas of every patriot.
Scene of the Riots-Eight o'clock Wednesday Morning-The Monroe Guards, under the command of Captain Small, have just arrived on the ground, agreeably to the order of General Cadwalader, issued last night. The Jackson Artillerists, Captain Hubbell, and the National Guard, Captain Tustin, who have been upon duty all night, are about moving off, being now relieved by the Philadelphia Cadets, Captain White, and the Monroe Guards. A large number of persons have already assembled to view the scene of last night's devastation, but all seemed peaceable and orderly. Guards are stationed at various points for the protection of property, and the indications are that no further violence will be resorted to, although several exciting rumors are afloat.
The neighborhood of the late riots is crowded by hundreds of persons. Some as spectators, others engaged in searching the premises of the remaining Irish inhabitants for fire arms. In several houses, which were partially deserted, fire arms were found, and also in outhouses and cellars. A large pig-sty, on the lot immediately in the rear of the scene of conflagration, was demolished by some of the mob and a gun found under the floor. A detachment of the military are posted there, a portion of them on guard around the ruins of the fire, with the view of keeping away the crowd so as to enable workmen in one or two cellars to recover the remains of a quantity of money said to be lost. One of the tenants of a house destroyed, it is said, had seven hundred dollars in her house, which is at present the object of search. The Irish population are removing from every quarter in the vicinity unmolested. An Irishman was taken from a house where it was suspected there were fire arms. At first he denied there being any there, but upon examination two or three pieces were found heavily loaded. He was arrested and taken to the lock-up house in the Northern Liberties. On the way down he was beset and almost killed by the mob, which was highly incensed at him. In St. John street, near Poplar, a number of voices cried out, "hang him, hang him," but this was not done and he was with the greatest difficulty put into the lock-up. A portion of the military are posted around the dead body of an Irishman, named Joseph Rice, who was killed the night before while looking over a fence, from behind which, it is alleged, he had fired at the crowd. It is reported by a man who resided in the centre of the scene of riot, that seven or eight of the tenants of one of the houses destroyed by fire perished in the flames. We have no doubt of the truth of the report, and believe that many others perished of whom we have no account, and perhaps never will know anything definitely. Mr. Peale, who was wounded yesterday, has had his arm amputated. We have heard of several persons who were wounded and two or three reports of others actually killed; but not knowing the facts, we refrain from making any statements in regard thereto until we shall have obtained satisfactory information or knowledge about them. It is but justice to state that a number of persons, wounded, some mortally, were taken to the drug store of A. R. Hortter, at the corner of Edward street and Germantown Road, where their wounds were dressed and every attention paid that humanity could suggest or medical science apply. Several were also taken to the drug store of Mr. Bower, at the junc-
tion of Germantown Road and Third street. Others were taken on Tuesday to the residence of Dr. A. E. Griffiths, on Second street, below Phoenix, where they were attended to by Drs. Bethel, Duffield and Griffiths.
Ashton S. Hutchinson, while endeavouring to save some of his goods from destruction in his factory, at the fire on Tuesday night, was severely shot in the face.
Eleven o'clock, A.M.-Groups of boys, who have been actively engaged in pulling down the tottering walls and chimneys of the houses destroyed by fire, are beginning to manifest symptoms of uneasiness and are attracting the attention of persons of more mature years to houses from which it is said shots were fired yesterday upon the Native Americans. The back building of one of the row of houses, fronting on Washington Street Market, which were destroyed last night, are just discovered to be on fire. The kitchen of a house on Cadwalader street, from which the tenants are moving in great haste, has taken fire from the above premises, and an Engine and Hose Company have arrived in consequence of the alarm. Some fears being apprehended for their security, Capt. Small has thrown a guard around them and they are in a fair way of suppressing the flames.
As soon as the fire above referred to was suppressed, another was discovered in a court, running from Cadwalader street, above Jefferson. Two Engines and several hose companies are in service, under the protection of the Monroe Guards. A large number of persons entered a house opposite this court, belonging to the Messrs Whitecar, of Spring Garden, for the purpose of searching for arms, but were induced to leave the premises upon the remonstrance of a military officer. They had not left more than twenty minutes before smoke was seen issuing from the trap door, and it was discovered that the loft of the building was on fire. The timely efforts of the firemen saved this building, but the court referred to, consisting of four or six frame houses, was entirely destroyed.
Twelve o'clock, Noon.-The excitement is increasing, with the crowds of persons gathering in the district. Families are removing from their dwellings in every quarter for squares around. Some of the military are still upon the ground, to protect those removing, and to allay the excitement. A row of frame dwellings, from which the tenants have removed, were fired, and soon after another row, likewise untenanted, just in the rear of Cadwalader street, in the immediate vicinity of the late fire, were fired and destroyed. A short time afterwards, two three-story buildings, at the corner of Jefferson and Washington streets, likewise untenanted, were set on fire and shared the same fate.
Half past Two o'clock.-The Catholic Church, called St. Michael's, on Second Street, above Master, has just been fired, which, with the dwelling of the Priest, on the north, and small frame dwellings on the south, are destroyed. The Priest, under the protection of a body of the military, quit his residence, and was carried away in a cab. It was with extreme difficulty that he secured a safe retreat. Several fire companies exerted themselves to the utmost to save the adjoining property, some of which they fortunately rescued from the flames. During this time, the two brick buildings on the corner of Jefferson and Washington streets, are burning without an effort to extinguish them. The residents in a row of small brick houses have displayed from their windows small American flags, in one of which General Hubbell has his headquarters.
Four o'clock, P. M.-The Female Seminary, at the corner of Second and Phoenix streets, has been fired, and remains a heap of ruins. The excitement increases and great consternation prevails, and families at more distant points are quitting their houses. Various rumors are afloat as to armed bodies of Irishmen coming from Richmond and Manayunk and other points, which produce still more feeling. By many the reports were not credited. The fact that the Irish had driven Abraham P. Ayre, and the men in his employ, engaged in building a wharf at Richmond, from that place during the morning was no doubt the foundation of a portion of the rumor; at this hour, however, we do not know but the rumors may have some basis so far as regards those employed at Richmond.
We learn that previous to the firing of the church, Mr. Donahue, the priest, gave up the keys to Captain Jonas P. Fairlamb, of the Wayne Artillery Corps, who examined the premises, but found no arms, except in the dwelling, where there was an old rusty musket. This was about ten o'clock. The Captain then locked up the church, and after patrolling the district with his command, the attention of the military was directed to an attempt to fire a house, corner of Washington and Jefferson streets, and during their absence from the church it was fired.
The military then returned to the premises, but too late to prevent the building from being destroyed. While it was burning the lots back were crowded with unfortunate people, who were driven from the adjoining frame houses by the flames. We saw a number of females standing by the remnants of their furniture which they had saved from the rage of the devouring elements, and weeping bitterly at the misfortune which had overtaken them. Some had lost all they possessed in the world, and were driven from their homes and deprived of all shelter.
The number of children thus turned out of doors was great; they appeared to be exceedingly frightened, but they had recovered somewhat, though they looked dejected. One of the most affecting exhibitions was the burial of an infant in the church yard, while the church and adjoining buildings were in a blaze. The only funeral service which was performed over the grave, consisted of the brief and bitter ejaculations of the parents, accompanied by the crackling of the burning timbers of the church.
The frame buildings destroyed are, we are informed, the property of a Mr. M'Creedy, who keeps a tavern somewhere in the vicinity of Pine and Penn streets. The walls of the Rev. Mr. Donahue's dwelling, at the corner of Jefferson and Second streets, are cracked and lean out in such a manner as to render it extremely dangerous to the passers by. During the burning of the church, the mob continued to shout, and when the cross at the peak of the roof fell, they gave three cheers, and a drum and fife played the Boyne water. Nothing now remains of the beautiful gothic structure but its blackened walls.
General Hubbell's command, and the Monroe Guards have been relieved by the City Guards, under the command of Captain Hill.
Five o'clock-The Seminary has been completely destroyed. The Temperance Grocery Store of Mr. Joseph Corr, at the northeast corner of Phoenix and Second streets, opposite the Seminary, and from which was said the volley was fired on Monday evening which killed Mr. Wright, was completely riddled, and everything in the house destroyed.
The First Brigade, under the immediate command of General Cadwalader, who was under the command of Major General Patterson, has arrived upon the ground, accompanied by Sheriff McMichael; the Sheriff and the Major General riding side by side. Colonel Lee is acting as Aid to General Cadwalader.
The troops approached from Fourth street, and at Fourth and Franklin they separated into two divisions - one under the General, composed of the Philadelphia Grays, with two pieces of artillery, the Junior Artillerists, and one or two other companies, with the First City Troop in front, proceeded down Franklin to Second, while the other division, under Colonel Page, proceeded up to Jefferson street, and down that to Second, where a junction was formed. Previous to the junction, however, the mob made a rush upon the bayonets of Page's troops, and defied them with loud threats. The moment was critical, when the Colonel appealed to them as American citizens, upon which they gave him three cheers and retired.
Six o'clock.-The rioters have proceeded to the house of Alderman Hugh Clark, at the corner of Fourth and Master streets, and have entirely gutted it out. The windows have been demolished, the furniture thrown out of the windows, the beds cut open and the feathers scattered about in the wind. All the papers of the Alderman have been destroyed or lost.
The corner house was occupied by his brother, Patrick Clark, as a tavern and dwelling, and his furniture has been also destroyed. When we left the spot, some boys were amusing themselves by defacing the walls of the buildings, accompanying themselves by playing a tattoo upon the sheet-iron top of the dismounted coal stove. The coats of all the spectators were filled with feathers from the beds. In all this neighborhood, and indeed, throughout the whole district, people who desire to escape molestation have American flags, and strips of red, white and blue, hung from the windows of their dwellings.
The military arrived on the ground after all the mischief was done, and were there when we left. We then proceeded to the southeast corner of Germantown Road and Jefferson street, where the mob broke into a large three story brick house, occupied by Patrick Murray, as a grocery, demolished the windows, broke the furniture, throwing looking-glasses and handsome bureaus into the street, and they were engaged in this work when the division of military which had been at Mr. Clark's premises, arrived; and after considerable remonstrance on the part of General Cadwalader and Colonel Lee, the work of destruction was arrested, the house cleared, and a guard placed around it. Most of its contents had been destroyed or carried away by plunderers. Mr. Clark's house being left now unprotected, the boys resumed the amusements described above.
Seven o'clock.-By this time the district was comparatively quiet, the mob having apparently expended all their wrath, and the military was posted in various sections.
Half past eight o'clock.-Another outbreak has occurred. The house of Matthew Quin, in Master street, below Germantown Road, has been battered with stones. It was untenanted. The mob forbore to set fire to the building, because it would endanger a large number of Americans and Protestants in the destruction.
Between eight and nine o'clock, Harmony Court, consisting of six or eight houses, situated near Calwalader street, west of the Market House, was destroyed by fire; also, a frame house on Master street, below Germantown Road, which had been occupied by Matthew Quin, tuner; and two three story brick houses at the southeast corner of Second and Master streets, one occupied as a grocery store, and the other, which had been occupied by a man named McAleer, who, it is alleged, fired upon the crowd during Tuesday night.
About half past six o’clock information was received by Mayor Scott that an attack was contemplated on
St. Augustine’s church, in Fourth street, below Vine, and that a large crowd had already gathered in its
vicinity. He immediately repaired, upon horseback, to the spot, with a body of the city police, and addressed
the crowd. The police were posted around the chapel. The crowd still increased. The First City Troop were
immediately ordered out, and were upon the ground in a short time.
In Consequence of this state of things, the Mayor issued the following proclamation:
There is reason to believe that the spirit of disorder raging in the county, is about to extend itself into the
city, and to seek vent in the destruction of property and attack upon life. All good citizens, desirous to preserve the public peace, are, therefore, required to prepare themselves to patrol the streets, to resist all invasions of property, and to preserve the public peace, by resistance to every attempt to disturb it.
Each ward is requested to meet immediately at the place of their usual ward election.
JOHN M. SCOTT, Mayor.
Subsequent to the issuing of which, the citizens of Walnut Ward held a meeting, and appointed four per-
sons from each block to patrol the ward. The crowd still continued to increase at the church above referred to, and at about ten minutes before ten o’clock, fire was communicated to the vestibule of the church, it is said, by a boy about fourteen years old. It increased with rapidity after once under way, and dense masses of smoke curled out from every window.
In a few minutes, the flames reached the belfry, and burst out from the upper windows in broad sheets. The whole steeple was soon wrapt in the devouring elements, and presented a terrific aspect. The Chapel clock struck ten while the fire was raging in its greatest fury. At twenty minutes past ten o'clock, the cross which surmounted the steeple, and which remained unhurt, fell with a loud crash, amid the plaudits of a large portion of the spectators.
In ten minutes afterwards, the steeple, which had stood until burnt to a mere skeleton, fell, throwing up a mass of cinders which fell like a shower of gold upon the buildings and streets north-east of the church. The heat, during the height of the fire, was so intense, that persons could hardly look at the flames at the distance of a square, and the light was so brilliant as to dim even the gas lamps.
The houses on the corners of New street, opposite to St. Augustine Church, were in imminent danger during the fire, and that on the northeast corner ignited upon the roof from the extreme heat. The firemen, however, maintained their ground manfully, and threw copious streams of water upon all the surrounding property. Through their efforts, an immense amount of private property was saved. The building on the south side of the church, which stood within a few inches of its wall, was greatly heated throughout and was once or twice on fire. We should suppose it received considerable damage. A house on the north-east corner of Third and Vine streets, took fire from the sparks carried by the wind from the church, as were several others in a north-easterly direction from the fire, but the flames were suppressed before much damage was done, through the vigilance and activity of the firemen.
Half-past Eleven o'clock.-The City Councils are now in session, to take measures to subdue the rioters.
A boy, fourteen or fifteen years of age, has just been brought to the City Police Office, under escort, by the corps of Philadelphia Grays, who was arrested in attempting to set fire to a vacant building in Kensington, near the market house. The fire was extinguished by the military. The mob has, in a great measure, left Kensington, and is divided in squads at various points in the city, and the southern part of the county.
Fears are entertained that attempts will be made to fire other Catholic Churches, and the military have been strongly posted in the vicinity of them. `
The conflagration at St. Augustine's has nearly subsided; several houses in the immediate neighborhood were injured, none however, very seriously, as the firemen plyed them well with water. At this place, several of the police officers were knocked down, and the Mayor was struck in the breast with a stone.
Twelve o'clock.-All the avenues leading to St. Mary's Church, in Fourth street, near Prune, and St. Joseph's Church, in Willing's alley, have been guarded by troops, who suffer no person to enter the space unless they live within the square. This precaution is rendered necessary by the threats of destruction which have been made in reference to these buildings. All is quiet in Southwark and Moyamensing.
The fire now raging at St. Augustine's is occasioned by the burning of the magnificent library of books attached to the church. They are piled up in front of the house, and made a bonfire of.
One o'clock, A. M.-The alarm of fire is caused by the renewal of the burning of the Parsonage House of St. Augustine's Church. It is reported that everything is quiet in the districts of Kensington, Southwark, and Moyamensing. A slight demonstration was manifested by a collection of persons at the corner of Market and Thirteenth streets, but it was promptly met and checked by the strong military force established in Thirteenth street, for the protection of St. John's Church, between Market and Chesnut. The City Councils are still in secret session.
Two o'clock, A. M.-Councils have just adjourned, after having provided for a public meeting of the citizens this morning, at ten o'clock, and requested the Mayor to call meetings of the citizens of each ward, to report to him the force each can bring to the support of the public peace.
During the whole of the day a large and torn American flag was displayed at the corner of Second and Franklin streets, over which was a printed placard, announcing that “This is the flag which was trampled upon by the Irish Papists." This created great excitement, and what was surprising was, that the Sheriff nor any of the police thought it worth while to take charge of and remove the exciting placard. Throughout the day, boys were firing off pistols in every quarter, evidently for the purpose of keeping up the excitement.
Amount of Loss and Distress.-The St. Michael's Church and the Seminary, in Kensington, cost for building from thirty-five to forty thousand dollars, and St. Augustine's not less than thirty thousand dollars. The amount of property thus far destroyed cannot be less than one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. No less than two hundred families have been compelled to remove from their homes.
The sights presented during yesterday and last night were truly sickening. Men with their wives, and often six or seven children, trudging fearfully through the streets, with small bundles, seeking a refuge they knew not where. Mothers with infants in their arms, and little ones following after them, carrying away from their homes whatever they could pick up at the instant, passing along with fearful tread, not knowing where to turn.
St. Augustine's Church was a large and substantial building. Some nine or ten years since, it was rebuilt, and presented quite an ornamental appearance. A highly finished cupola, surmounted by a gilt cross, and containing a clock, was among the additions put to the church when it was rebuilt. The Rev. Mr. Moriarty (said to be at present in France) is the pastor of the congregation, and it is not long since, we remember him as one of the popular divines it was the fashion to throng after.
The four walls now stand in naked majesty, and the house of the priest on Crown street, presents to the eye a number of floorless chambers and dismantled walls. The green graves of the dead show the tramp of the ruthless rioter, and gravestones, broken by fragments of the tumbling building, lie scattered about.
The Lower District -State of Affairs. - From twelve o'clock on Wednesday night, until daybreak yesterday morning, numbers of citizens - generally Native Americans - assembled in various parts of Southwark, determined to resist the premeditated attack upon St. Philip's church, in Queen street. There were, however, no indications of a riot in that quarter. Many persons fled to that, and adjacent lower districts, during Wednesday, more for protection than anything else; and the rumor spread that they intended to make an attack.
During the evening of Wednesday, while St. Augustine's church was enveloped in conflagration, most of the residents near St. Philip's church, commenced moving their goods from the threatened danger. Furniture, cars, men, women and children, in the greatest confusion, were passing to and fro in the streets, loaded with their household goods. Such a scene has seldom, if ever been witnessed within the borders of that district. In the morning after daylight, Mr. Dunn, a brother of Patrick Dunn, the priest of St. Philip's church, requested Alderman Palmer to take possession of the church.
There was a gun taken from the residence of a gentleman near the church. We forbear mentioning his name at this time. It may be proper to state how he came in possession of said weapon. On Monday night two men were passing down Queen street, one of them having a musket on his shoulder. They were accosted by the night police, and the musket was demanded. The man immediately cried, “murder!” at the top of his voice, and in a few moments a large number of persons hastened to the scene. The consternation which prevailed at this time was great; all parties wished to explain, the two men were frightened nearly to death, and in the general confusion, the musket was dropped on the pavement. It was picked up by the gentleman in question and taken into his residence. This is authentic. The musket has been given into the possession of Alderman Palmer.
There was a prevailing rumor that our Catholic citizens had fire-arms secreted in their dwelling houses in the district. This, we have good reason to believe, is one of the unfounded rumors that has caused the continuation of the riot. We know many of them, and American hearts beat within their bosoms. Several of the storekeepers, being fearful of an attack, removed their most valuable goods to places of security. During the morning, a number of the Native American party resolved to resist any mob, if in their power, that attempted to invade the district of Southwark.
Written handbills were posted up on a number of corners, trees, and tree-boxes, calling on the citizens to assemble at their respective ward houses in the district to form a patrol to guard the place by night.
Mr. Michael McGarvey, at the corner of Queen and Second streets, retired with his family, in the early part of the afternoon, to a place of security, it being alleged that he had spoken in such a manner as to excite the rioters. The citizens of the district of Southwark, in conformity to the proclamation of the Sheriff, assembled at their ward houses; the Native Americans, particularly, turned out in great numbers, and acted in perfect harmony with the Whigs and Democrats, to adopt such measures as would prevent any rioting or destruction of property within the boundary of their district. Up to four o'clock there was not any considerable excitement manifested, although the numbers of persons assembled in various parts of the district were large. St. Philip's Church, in Queen street, was placed in. the possession of the military, and a strong guard of troops was placed at the corners of the streets, to keep the crowd from getting in front of the church.
In Moyamensing, there were but few persons in the neighborhood of St. Paul's Church, and there was not the least symptom of a riot up to ten o'clock last evening. At the same hour, in the district of Southwark, the streets were filled with persons, all of whom appeared to be peaceably disposed.
Twelve o'clock, Midnight.-The crowds which congregated in the neighborhood of St. Philip's Church, have dispersed, and the military have the control of the streets. There were two unruly persons arrested during the evening, and placed in the Hall of the district.
Midnight.-The crew of the Princeton are quartered in the Girard Banking House opposite our office, and at the moment at which we write are singing National songs in full chorus. We hope they may have nothing more to do during their sojourn on shore.
Upper District-Proceedings of Yesterday.-Ten o'clock A. M.-Quiet is once more restored in the district of Kensington. Many persons are on the ground as mere spectators, viewing the ruins, a large number of whom are females. Several houses were fired on Wednesday night, some on Master street below Second, and a row in Harmony Court, in the neighbourhood of the Market House. The flags are still flying from the windows, and carmen are actively employed in removing goods from the vicinity of the riots. Many of the houses have bills stuck upon them, designating that they are " to be let," but we presume that no person is anxious, under existing circumstances, to make application for them.
Large numbers of persons also collected in the neighbourhood of the ruins of the church of St. Augustine, in Fourth street opposite New; to witness the extent of the conflagration. Nothing but the bare walls are standing, and they appear to be in a very insecure condition. We saw a large mass of brick fall in front, and some of the lookers on made a very narrow escape of being crushed beneath them. Most of the furniture of the Church was removed on the afternoon of the fire. The large and valuable library was consumed, excepting some few works which were carried off by the spectators. The two houses adjoining on the south side of the church, were considerably burned, and much of the furniture, wearing apparel, &c., were destroyed. The parsonage in the rear of the church, fronting on Crown street, was likewise destroyed, together with the furniture it contained.
A company of the military from Bucks county came in about midnight, and took their position in the neighbourhood of St. Mary's Church. Two companies came from Germantown, one during the night and the other early this morning. At 10 o’ clock, the body of George Shifler was conveyed to the grave, followed by a large concourse of persons, friends of the deceased, and others to the number of six or eight hundred.
The flag which he held when shot was wrapped round the coffin. A committee of four led the procession, to wit - Col. Childs, John D. Fox, William Bethel, and E. D. Tarr, Esq. On the right of the coffin, the flag of the pleasure yacht, Amanda Francis, was carried by one of his fellow members. The body was deposited in the Cemetry at the corner of Hanover and Duke street.
A meeting of citizens was held in the Independence Square, pursuant to a call signed by Mayor Scott, to adopt effectual measures to secure the peace of the city. John M. Reed, Esq. presided. The meeting was addressed by John K. Kane, and a series of resolutions adopted, recommending parents to keep their children, and masters their apprentices at home, and also recommending the citizens of the respective wards in the city and county, to meet at 2 o'clock and organise to prevent any further outbreak.
Three o'clock P. M.- Everything in the district of Kensington is still quiet and no outbreak is anticipated at this moment. The citizens are assembling at the various wards in accordance with the suggestion of the meeting this morning, to organise for the purpose of preserving the public peace. Most of the mob has been drawn into the city, and but few persons are on the ground of yesterday's devastation. Several companies of the Second Brigade under the command of Captain Goodman, have taken up their quarters at the intersection of Third and Germantown Road. The funeral of Wm. Wright took place from his father's residence at three o'clock and was numerously attended by the relatives and friends of the deceased.
About noon a number of persons assembled in the neighbourhood of St. John's Church in Thirteenth street below Market. A report having been circulated that an attack would be made upon that building, a detachment of volunteers under the command of Major Dithmar, are guarding every avenue leading to the church. Two pieces of artillery have been stationed at the gates. A number of the Mayor's officers are on the ground, and it is thought the force is sufficient to repel any attempt to injure the property.
A guard has also been stationed at the State Arsenal in Juniper street.
The Mayor and Sheriff have issued a proclamation, forbidding persons to appear in any street or place in the city and county of Philadelphia, which is or may be in the occupation of the civil authorities, or of the militia. And authorising the officers of the militia to declare what street and places are thus occupied, and to employ such force of arms as may be necessary to compel obedience to this order.
Fire engines and hose carriages are requested not to enter such streets or places, without permission from the military authorities.
Seven O'clock, P.M.-Governor Porter arrived in the city this afternoon at five o'clock. The object of the visit being, no doubt, to aid by his counsel in the suppression of the riots. Up to this time every thing is quiet. The streets are in a state of unusual commotion, and every one is anxiously inquiring of his neighbour about the state of affairs. Bodies of armed citizens are patrolling the city, and the military and civil force is such that it is almost impossible a riot can take place this night.
Ten o'clock.-The populace are still out in great numbers walking the streets, notwithstanding the request of the Mayor, that they would remain at home. The officers and crew of the U. S. steamship Princeton passed this office an hour ago, armed to the teeth, and ready to do battle, if their services should be required. They took up their quarters in the Girard Bank - that building being appropriated for the Military Head Quarters.
Local News from the Daily Papers of Friday, May 10th. – Funeral. - The mortal remains of Lewis Greble were followed to the tomb yesterday afternoon, by a large concourse of his relatives and friends. Mr. Greble was a young man, and has left a wife and two children to mourn his untimely end. He was a member of the Methodist Church - amiable in disposition, and beloved by all who knew him. In token of respect, as well as justice to his memory, we can safely state that he was on the ground as a Native American, and as a spectator; the rumor that he was taking an active part in the riot, is destitute of foundation. Peace to his ashes.
The funeral of Charles Stivell, one of the unfortunate victims of the Kensington riots, took place from the residence of his mother, in German street, near Fourth, yesterday afternoon, at five o'clock. The corpse was followed to the place of interment, at the Philanthropic Cemetry, by the Members of the Hope Fire Company, (of which he was a member), the Moyamensing Hose Company, a large number of the Native Americans of the ward in which he resided, and a considerable train of friends and acquaintances.
Inquests.-The Coroner held inquests on the 7th of May, over the bodies of George Shiffler and William Wright. On the 8th, over the bodies of Matthew Hammitt, Joseph Rice, Charles Stillwell, Lewis Greble, and Wesley J. Rhinedollar, all of whom were killed at the Kensington riots. The Coroner wishes it stated, that after the strictest inquiry, he has not been able to identify a single person that fired a gun during the riots at Kensington. Likewise he has inquired into the report in circulation, that Greble had a gun in his hands when shot. Such, however, not being the fact, as he had not a gun, club, or any kind of weapon whatever, but was entirely unarmed.
Obstructing an Officer.-Bernard Brown was held to $200 bail, by Mayor Scott, on the charge of obstructing an officer while in the discharge of his official duty.
Arrival.-A Committee appointed by the New York Native American Association, arrived in this city last evening.
Taken to the Hospital.-Oliver Cree, the Irishman who was taken to the Northern Liberty lock-up, on Wednesday, after he had been nearly killed by the exasperated Natives, was placed under heavy bonds yesterday, and taken to the Hospital.
Appropriation.-The City Councils met last evening and appropriated twenty thousand dollars, to pay the extra police force engaged in suppressing the riots.
Southwark.-The Commissioners yesterday afternoon appointed additional watchmen to each watch-beat of the district, to proceed at once upon duty, properly equipped, with badges and rattles, to continue on duty during the present riots and tumults, for the safety and additional security of the citizens of the district.
Pottsville.-We have the authority of one of the most extensive contractors on the Port Carbon Railroad, for the assertion, that no persons have left that neighbourhood, or the vicinity of Pottsville, for the purpose of mingling in the riots in Kensington. We give the information for the purpose of contradicting the reports that have been so industriously circulated to that effect.
Volunteers.-Two or three companies of volunteers from Harrisburg and Lancaster, arrived in our city last night, in the western train of cars.
Inciting a Riot.-Samuel Silver was held to one thousand dollars bail yesterday, by Mayor Scott, to answer the charge of inciting a riot, by wilfully discharging a pistol during a great excitement.
Take in to Prison from the Hospital.- John M'Aleer, the man who had his thumb blown off by the bursting of a gun, in Kensington, was yesterday taken from the Hospital, on a warrant, and conveyed to prison.
Misdemeanor.-Richard Musser was taken before Mayor Scott, yesterday, on the charge of misdemeanor, being found in possession of some books, the property of St. Augustine's church. He was held to bail for another hearing.
Fire.-A framed building situated in George street below Tenth, occupied by Edward Smith, blacksmith, and Moses Binns, house carpenter, was destroyed by fire last evening, about eight o'clock.
The Grand Jury returned twenty-two bills, and one ignored. That body also made the following Presentment:
To the Court of Quarter Sessions of the Peace of the City and County of Philadelphia.
The Grand Inquest respectfully present, That their attention has been called by the County Commissioners to the deplorable scenes of riot and mob violence, which have occurred within the last two days in the District of Kensington, involving the destruction of a vast amount of property, for which large drafts may be made on the County Treasury.
The Grand Jury are sensible of the loss likely to accrue to the county by the destruction of property referred to, and while regretting the same, cannot withhold their opinion that the open violation of law and order, and contempt of the civil authorities, manifested in Kensington, and subsequently in the city of Philadelphia, by the burning of St. Augustin's church, are much more to be deplored than any pecuniary loss consequent thereupon. The Grand Jury would earnestly call to the attention of the court, the propriety of arousing the citizens generally to a sense of the necessity of their rallying to the support of the authorities in restoring order and maintaining the supremacy of the law.
The Grand Jury will most cheerfully unite in any effort to accomplish those most desirable ends, in which every citizen desirous of restoring public order, and preserving the city and county from anarchy and bloodshed, should unhesitatingly lend his aid.
The Grand Jury submit to the consideration of the Court, the letter of the County Commissioners, above referred to, and desire that it may be considered a part of the Presentment.
The Grand Jury present, that to their knowledge, lives have been lost in the riots to which this Presentment refers, and while deeply sympathising with the families and friends of the slain, and making all allowances for acts committed under the phrensy of excitement, they consider that sufficient time has elapsed for the abatement of such feelings, and that they are no excuses for the destruction of buildings erected for the worship of God.
John M. Brown, Foreman, W. Nassau, Jr.,
Chas. J. Ashmead, Geo. Follin,
Wm. Rovoudt, W.H. French,
John Paisley, John Kingston,
Wm. Loughlin, Jos. J. Bishop,
Isaac Bedford, Jos. B. Linerd,
Jacob H. Smith, R.W. Pomeroy,
Geo. W. Smick, Benj. Mifflin,
Alex. Austin, W. Wurts,
Whereupon, the Court directed the same to be published in the daily newspapers of the city.
Town Meeting. – A meeting of citizens of the city and county of Philadelphia, convened in Independence
Square yesterday morning, on the call of the Mayor, for the purpose of deliberating upon the state of the
On motion of William M.Meredith, Esq., John M. Read, Esq. was appointed Chairman, and Frederick
The object of the meeting having been stated by the Chair, the Hon. Horace Binney addressed the meeting in the following brief remarks:
Fellow citizens:--In an emergency in which the lives and property of you all are threatened, you are convened for the purpose of adopting measures to remove and suppress the evil. It is necessary that you should act, and act promptly; and it is necessary to recollect that whatever has been done has been done in scandalous violation of law. There can be no happiness, no security in the community, except in the maintenance of law. Whatever is to be done here, must be done to strengthen the hands of the law. Individually, I have not had twenty-five minutes to consider this question. My influence has been used to keep my own House in order. – (Applause.) This has prevented me from reflecting on the subject, so as to offer remarks upon the course to be pursued. Excitement is not necessary. The fruits of excitement are already experienced. We have witnessed the horrible consequences of it. With the aid of a few friends, during the last fifteen minutes, a scheme has been agreed upon, the best that could be devised at the moment, to prevent the further progress of this enormous evil.-I will say that we are under lawful organisation to act in whatever scenes of trial our city may be exposed. We act under the authorities of the City, the County, and the State, and whatever is done, must be done by them, through them, and under them. But, we must not forget that in scenes of violence where the authorities find it necessary to oppose force to force, they may err in the mode of discharging their duty. Still we ought to strengthen them by every means in our power, nor should their acts be too nicely weighed by fault-finders ; during exigencies when time for reflection is scarcely allowed. They should receive the sympathy and support of you all. This is a body to carry into effect whatever is resolved upon. The citizens should give their aid in whatever manner the constituted authorities may deem best. Mr. B. then offered the following resolutions, which, on being seconded by John K. Kane, Esq., were unanimously adopted:
1. Resolved, By the citizens of the City and County of Philadelphia, that they will forthwith enrol and hold themselves in readiness to maintain the laws and protect the public peace, under the direction of the constituted authorities of the City, County and State.
2. Resolved, That the several Aldermen and Constables of the different wards, be requested, as soon as possible, to take such measures as may be deemed necessary for the enrolment and organisation of the citizens.
3. Resolved, That the citizens be exhorted to abstain from assembling at or near the places of disorder and excitement, except under the direction of the proper authorities.
4. Resolved, That the citizens of this city will, with the whole weight of their influence, means and strength, sustain the constituted authorities in the use of all lawful means for the preservation of the public peace, and will regard with the utmost favor, the acts of the constituted authorities for that purpose, in the performance of their duty, under the guidance of the undoubted power of the law, that whatever degree of force is necessary to protect the lives and property of the citizens, by the constituted authorities, that force is lawful.
5. Resolved, That the citizens be requested to meet in their several places of holding their ward elections, This Day, at two o'clock, there to organise, under the constituted authorities, in support of peace and order.
6. Resolved, That the sincere and hearty thanks of this meeting be, and they are hereby tendered to the several Fire Companies who, by the promptitude with which they repaired to the scene of destruction, and by their perseverance, saved an incalculable amount of private property.
On motion of General Adam Diller, the following Preamble and Resolution were adopted.
Whereas, It is believed that a great portion of these rude assemblies is made up of young boys, who are incompetent of foreseeing the evil consequences of such illegal acts, and it is believed that parents and masters could prevent these youths from attending the scene of riot, therefore,
Resolved, That the civil authorities be requested to call, by proclamation, upon the heads of families and masters, requesting them to keep their young men and boys at home during the prevailing excitement.
And on motion of Josiah Randall, Esq., the meeting then adjourned.
Head Quarters, 1st D. P. M., May 9, 1844.
Orders No. 3.-Brigadier General Hubbell will detail the Lafayette Light Guards, Lieutenant Pierce, and Independent Rifles, Captain Florence, for the protection of St. Philip de Neri Church, in Queen street, and the Wayne Artillery, Captain Fairlamb, for the protection of St. Paul's Church, in Christian street.
General Hubbell is charged with the defence of these buildings, and he is authorised and required to repel with force, any attempt to injure public or private property, and in the event of an attack, will report immediately at Head Quarters. General Hubbell is authorised to organise and arm companies of citizens in undress, and will appoint suitable persons to command the new corps. By command of
Major General PATTERSON.
Head Quarters, 1st D., P. M. Phila. 9th May 1844.
Orders No. 4. Brigadier General Cadwalader will detail the Hibernian Greens, Captain Mullen, for the protection of St. Mary's Church, in Fourth street, and the Montgomery Hibernia Greens, Captain Colahan, for the protection of Trinity Church, corner of Spruce and Sixth streets, and the Orphan Asylum, corner of Seventh and Spruce. Both Companies will be under the command of Major Mullen, who is authorized and required to repel with force any attempt to assail his Corps or to injure public or private property.
By command of Maj. Gen. PATTERSON.
Head Quarters, 1st D., P. M. Phila. May 9th.
Orders, No. 5. Brigadier General Roumfort will detail a Guard for the Protection of the Catholic Church near Fairmount. Gen. Roumfort is charged with the protection of property within the bounds of his Brigade, and he is authorised and required to repel with force any attempt to injure public or private property, and in the event of an attack will report immediately at Head Quarters, when he will be reinforced.
Gen. Roumfort is authorised to organise and arm Companies of citizens in undress, and will appoint suitable persons to command the new corps,
By command of Maj. Gen. PATTERSON.
John Miles, Aid-de-Camp.
We received the following documents at half-past one o'clock, this morning.
OPINION OF THE ATTORNEY GENERAL.
Attorney General's Office,
Philadelphia, May 9, 1844.
Gentlemen-In compliance with your request of this morning, I most willingly state to you my opinion on the points submitted for my consideration.
The power to preserve the public peace, and to maintain the authority and observance of the laws, is undoubtedly, in the first instance, vested in the High Sheriff of the County, and Mayor of the City. All magistrates, subordinate officers, and citizens, are subject to the order and direction of one or the other of these functionaries, or both, as the emergency may require. If need be, the, Governor of the Commonwealth may be called on to interpose, with the entire force of the State. The military is also subject to the requisition of these authorities, when proper cases for making the requisition arise.
The question is, how much force may be employed to suppress riots, disorders, and breaches of the peace, is at all times one of great delicacy and responsibility but it is one which in critical conjunctures, no doubt whatever exists.
If a riotous body of men assemble with the avowed or manifest design of taking life, doing great bodily harm, or of firing buildings, or destroying property in which danger to life or personal safety may be involved, and they resist the legally constituted authorities, and persist in the prosecution of their designs, it is perfectly clear that just as great a degree of force may be employed to disperse or arrest them, as is necessary to effect that object. If they take life, or threaten to do so with the means of executing their threat, their lives may unquestionably be taken, in the same manner as if they were open public enemies or pirates. The public streets, or even private property, may be occupied by the force employed in maintaining order, in the exclusion of every other object.
Of course, the emergency must be a clear one, and the order given by the proper officer recognised by the laws, or vested with the power, in order to justify this terrible appeal to the last means of preserving the public safety.
I know this power has been sometimes questioned; but without its possession, our government would be a mere shadow. It would profess to do what it is denied the power to do; and it would be, as it ought to be, held in utter contempt for its imbecility. The great principle of self-preservation lies at the foundation of our government; and on this principle any degree of force is justifiable that is indispensably necessary.
I should, therefore, not hesitate an instant to use all the force that was necessary to this end, against whomsoever may be found with arms in their hands, to take life, or with the manifest determination to burn down or destroy buildings, and trample on the laws.
Yours, very respectfully,
OVID F. JOHNSON
To Morton M'Michael, Esq., High Sheriff,
John M. Scott, Mayor.
PROCLAMATION OF THE GOVERNOR.
Head Quarters, May 9, 1844.
David R. Porter, Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and Commander in Chief; &c.-Orders as follows, to wit;
Whereas, He has received information from the regularly constituted authorities, that large bodies of riotous persons have assembled in the City and County of Philadelphia, within the last two days, and manifested a disposition to persist in the same course of organised efforts to disturb the public peace, and to kill and slay the citizens of this Commonwealth, to burn and destroy churches, houses, and other property belonging to the citizens, and that the usual means employed by the Sheriff and Mayor have thus far proved inadequate to check the turbulence and outrage of said riotous assemblages, and whereas, he has also been informed that the lives of a number of persons have been sacrificed; and that numerous houses and churches have been burned and destroyed - he issues the following orders:
First - It is ordered by the Commander-in-Chief that the Sheriff of the City and County of Philadelphia, the Mayor of the City, and all the Magistrates, Constables, and Citizens, be directed and requested to co-operate for the preservation of the public peace, and the dispersion of the riotous assemblies above referred to.
Second - It is ordered by the Commander-in-Chief, that Major General Patterson be directed to call into immediate service all the volunteer companies belonging to the First Division of the Pennsylvania Militia, and so to order and distribute them, as well as all other volunteer companies ordered to report themselves to him, as to suppress, in the most effectual manner, the assemblies referred to, and to disperse or procure the arrest of the persons engaged in the same.
Third - it is ordered by the Commander-in-Chief, that when called upon by the Sheriff of the county, or the Mayor of the city, General Patterson shall adopt the necessary precautionary measures to clear and occupy, by an adequate portion of his force, any street, alley, or private property, to protect the same from riot, disturbance, or destruction, and that he employ, in any emergency, such a degree of force or resistance as shall be necessary to maintain the public peace and safety of unoffending individuals.
The Commander-in-Chief avails himself of this opportunity of expressing his entire approbation of the measures adopted during this day by the Sheriff, Mayor, and Major General of the First Division, for the preservation of the public peace, and the enforcement of the laws.
He also expresses his entire concurrence with the Attorney General in his opinion this day expressed to the Sheriff and Mayor, on all the questions therein answered. He confidently hopes that all good citizens will promptly unite in the suppression of these disgraceful tumults, and in the maintenance of order and tranquillity. He at the same time does not hesitate to avow, that in his opinion the time has arrived for the most vigorous and energetic measures, and dreadful as may be the alternative, the last and most fatal resort to means destructive even of the lives of offenders, is far better than the continuance of such disgraceful outrages. Relying upon the patriotism of the citizen soldier, who is thus called upon in the hour of peril, to protect the institutions of his country from assault, the Commander-in-Chief is confident that no soldier will, under any circumstances, fail to discharge his whole duty, and to preserve his own and his country's honor untarnished.
By order of the Governor and Commander-in-Chief.
ADAM DILLER, Adj. Gen. P. M.
We rejoice to know that the Native Americans have actively co-operated from the first, in the protection of life and property, and that it is their stern determination to resist any further assaults that may be made upon the Catholic Churches. It is evident that we have now reached the crisis, and that it is past! Thank God it is so!
Our City and County-(Monday, May 13.)-The excitement in the minds of the people is rapidly subsiding; the fears of the inhabitants of the scene of the late riots have passed away, and a great many families are returning to their deserted dwellings. A number of false and exciting rumors have been circulating throughout the day, but there seems to be every indication of the riots being at an end. As a matter of precaution, however, the military are still under arms, and at least one company is posted at every Catholic church, seminary, or asylum throughout the city and county. At two o'clock in the day, two companies of military from Reading arrived, and were properly disposed of, and two corps of riflemen, ordered from Little York, were expected to arrive in the course of the night. At three o'clock in the afternoon, the German Battalion, under Major Dithmar, took a position at Germantown road and Master street, and in the course of the evening strong guards were distributed at proper points throughout the whole infected district.
General Hubbell's command has charge of St. Paul's and St. Philip's churches, in Moyamensing and Southwark, the same as on Thursday evening. General Cadwalader has charge of the peace of the city, and western district. The Head Quarters of the Major General, is at the Girard Bank, where a large body of troops are posted in reserve, for the purpose of acting upon any point, on ten minutes' warning, should an outbreak occur in any quarter. Patrols are organised, many of them are banded and armed, among which are a corps of thirty members of the Philadelphia Bar, and the same kind of preparation for preserving the peace is kept up in the outer districts. The following general orders were issued about mid-day, which show that the most energetic measures, even to the utmost extremity that may be necessary, will be resorted to for the purpose of curbing the spirit of disorder, which has been rearing its head and defying the civil authorities for the last few days.
Head Quarters, 1st D. P. M., May 10, 1844.
Order No. 7.-The Volunteers of the Division will parade in brigades this afternoon at three o'clock. The Brigade Majors will attend at four o'clock, at Head Quarters, for orders. The Lancaster and Dauphin Volunteers, under Major Hambright, and the German Battalion under Major Dithmar, will be held in reserve. General Cadwalader will detail the First City Troop, Captain Butler, for special service, and direct the commanding officers to report at Head Quarters. The Brigadier Generals, and all officers in command of posts and detachments, will use all the force at their disposal to protect public and private property, to disperse or procure the arrest of persons engaged in riotous assemblies, or inciting riots. They will clear and occupy any street, alley, or private property, to prevent riot, disturbance, or destruction. If resistance is offered, the parties resisting must be warned to retire, allowing a reasonable time, not exceeding five minutes, at the expiration of which time, if the street, alley, or private property is not cleared peaceably, it must be cleared forcibly. Order must be restored - life and property must be rendered secure. The idle, the vicious, and disorderly must be curbed and taught to understand and respect the supremacy of the law, and if they will not take warning, on their own heads be the consequences. The Major General is now invested by the Civil Authorities, and his Excellency the Governor and Commander- in-Chief, with full power, and he relies on the good sense of the citizens, and fidelity of his soldiers, to enable him to perform the duty assigned him.
Officers in command of armed Ward Citizens' Guards are requested to report their force and location at six o'clock, P. M.
By command of Maj. Gen. PATTERSON,
JOHN MILES, A. D. C.
Order No. 8. - The Lancaster Fencibles, Captain Findlay, are detailed for duty at the State Arsenal, in Juniper street, near Broad. Captain Findlay will relieve the present guard at nine o'clock, A. M.
By command of Maj. Gen. PATTERSON.
EDWARD HURST, Division Inspector.
Order No. 9. - Major Hambright will detail one company for the protection of St. Mary's Church, in Fourth street, and at St. Joseph's, in Willing's alley. The remainder of his command will be held in reserve at Head Quarters.
By command of Maj. Gen. PATTERSON
JOHN MILES, A.D.C.
The Riots and Some of their Consequences. - We are creditably informed that a large number of the Irish Catholics and others, who were so ruthlessly thrust from their homes during the riots of Tuesday and Wednesday, had encamped in Camac's Woods and other places, some two or three miles north of the city. Surrounded by their wives and children, it was alleged they were unable to proceed, and were afraid to return to the city. Our informant represented their condition as destitute and pitiable in the extreme. They were without food, except what chance or charity threw in their way, and destitute of clothing sufficient to protect them from the damp night air. While in this deplorable situation, as we are informed by a worthy and benevolent magistrate, one woman gave birth to a child. So horrible a condition of things aroused the sympathies of several of our citizens, who immediately set about furnishing them with succor and relief. A reporter was despatched to correctly ascertain the truth and particulars of the statement. After considerable search, a small party were found near the woods above alluded to, from whom, after allaying their fears that we were not enemies in disguise, we learned that much of the sad tale was but too true. The greater number of those who there sought refuge, had, however, dispersed. Some had returned to their burnt or deserted residences, while many were wending their way to the surrounding villages – to Manayunk, Norristown, &c.
One man, we heard, had just passed the spot where we met the party in question, leading by the hand a child, in search of his wife, from whom he had become separated on the night of the riots, and had not since been able to find her. Another grief-stricken individual, in the same neighborhood, was rudely taunted by a party of quarries whom he passed, and who, learning from him that he was a Catholic, assaulted him with stones, by which he was so much injured that he walked with difficulty. These are some of the distressing acts that have followed this mad and unchristian like assault of persons and property.
The scene of the riots yesterday presented a spectacle of perfect desolation. Ruin lifted its wan and haggard head through the blackened and yawning walls on every side, while the emblem of mourning and death hung from the muffled knocker and partly closed shutter. It was a heart-sickening sight, the like of which we hope we may never again look upon in this or any other city; and next to this, the humiliating display of the American bunting as a means of protecting the property of any class or sect of the citizens from the prejudices or destructive propensities of another. Rows of houses for several squares round the infected district, and in fact, for some distance out in the suburbs, have small tri-colored flags protruded from the windows - a sight mortifying and humiliating to those who have been taught to believe that our laws afford equal and efficient protection to all.
The amount of damage done to property was estimated by us yesterday, but we have reason to believe that we have underrated it. We found it impossible to arrive at a perfectly accurate computation of the loss, but we give the following as based upon the best possible conjectures, from the confused facts we have been enabled to collect.
Mrs. Brady, whose house, (a two story brick,) in Germantown Road, above Master street, was attacked and riddled, and a portion of her furniture destroyed, suffered a loss of about one hundred dollars.
The brick house of John Lafferty, adjoining, was but slightly injured. Mr. Lafferty was not at home at the time of the attack upon his and Mrs. Brady's premises, and both were thus injured in their property, not because of any faith of their own, but because some of the persons pursued had fled up the alley which separates the two houses, and escaped by leaping the back fences.
The damage done to the property of Alderman Hugh Clark, corner of Fourth and Master streets, amounts to about one thousand dollars. This includes the destruction of the furniture of Patrick Clark, who occupied the corner house, and also his own furniture. It is difficult to estimate this damage accurately, as the Alderman had a valuable library, which, together with papers, notes, receipts, accounts, &c., were all destroyed or stolen. The mother and brother of Alderman Clark resided in the house with him at the time of the riot, but they left before the mob attacked the premises. He is the police magistrate of the District of Kensington.
Patrick Murray, who owned the large brick house at the corner of Germantown Road and Jefferson street, which was sacked by the mob on Tuesday, must have lost about four thousand dollars worth of property. He kept a grocery store on the premises, and had an extensive and valuable stock of groceries and flour, which was destroyed and scattered about the streets, or carried off by plunderers. Mr. Murray, we were informed yesterday, has been seriously affected in his mind in consequence of his losses.
John Lavery, residing in Master street, below Germantown Road, had his house and furniture, all he had in the world, destroyed. His loss is about two thousand dollars. He was the owner of the premises, a large and handsome brick house, with brick back buildings. Mrs. Lafferty was bewailing the breaking of the windows of the house by the rioters on Monday after noon, little dreaming at that time that these outrages would be followed by the total destruction of the property.
The two story frame adjoining, owned by James Loy and occupied by Matthew Quin, was destroyed, and its value was about one hundred and fifty dollars .
On Cadwalader street, Bernard Sherry lost one frame and three brick houses, a quantity of goods, and all his furniture, except a single bed. His loss is about three thousand dollars.
Patrick McRee’s frame house, value about four hundred dollars, was reduced to ashes. It was tenanted by Owen McCollough, who lost in furniture, materials and manufactured goods, about one thousand dollars.
One frame and two brick houses, owned by Thomas Sheridan and each occupied by tenants in his employ, and having his materials in their possession, for the purpose of manufacturing, were consumed with all their contents. Loss about two thousand five hundred dollars.
Michael Keeman, frame house and back buildings burned to ashes. Loss about five hundred dollars.
On Washington street, six three-story brick buildings, all tenanted, were destroyed. One was occupied by James Triner, and his loss, together with the value of the building, was at least one thousand five hundred dollars. Another was owned and occupied by ____ Munroe, formerly a brickmaker, and his loss is supposed to be about two thousand five hundred dollars. Wm. Steward owned and occupied another, with a back ingrain carpet manufactory, which, with the looms, wool, carpeting, &c., shared a similar fate. Loss not less than four thousand dollars, and probably much greater. John Mellon, in the same row, owned the house and lost all his furniture. Damage about one thousand five hundred dollars.
Patrick Magee, who owned and occupied a large brick house at the corner of Washington and Jefferson streets, suffered a loss of about fifteen hundred dollars. The circumstances attending the burning of this man's property were truly distressing. He was sick in bed at the time, and unable to move and effect his escape as the flames were crackling around him. He was in imminent danger of being consumed, when a neighbor, Mr. Munroe, hearing of his situation, rushed to his relief, and bore him to a place of safety. In a short time afterwards, his house was a heap of smoking ruins. The furniture and stock of this old man, which was destroyed, is not estimated in the above account of damage.
Harmony Court, running west from Cadwalader street above Master, contained seven frame houses, three of which belonged to Mr. Charles Elliott, dry goods merchant, and four on the other side of the way, to Mr. John Dougherty, a tavern keeper. They were all consumed - were worth about four hundred dollars each - making the loss about two thousand eight hundred dollars. The tenants of these houses lost all their furniture and effects - valued at about four hundred dollars more.
On Cadwalader street, second door from Jefferson, the house occupied by Hugh Develin, was battered and damaged to a slight amount, but Mr. Develin lost property to the amount of about three hundred dollars. The house was owned by Messrs. Whitecar, of Spring Garden, one of whom was present when the attack was made, and by his remanstrances induced the mob to spare it.
The loss to the Hibernia Hose Company, including carriage hose, and hose house, was not less than one thousand dollars. The carriage was but recently built, and a portion of the hose, 500 feet, was furnished by the Commissioners of the district of Kensington.
The market house on Washington street, extending from Master to Jefferson street, which caught from the conflagration of the dwellings in Cadwalader street, was originally built by a company, but was the property of the district of Kensington. The whole of this was destroyed - loss three or four thousand dollars.
The circumstance of the location of the market house on that site, promoted the adjacent improvements, and enhanced the value of the property in its vicinity. Its destruction will, no doubt, depreciate the value of property there, both improved and otherwise, which will be felt for a long time to come, unless it is rebuilt.
John Heutzell's Carpenter Shop, in the rear of Cadwalader street, was entirely destroyed, and his house slightly injured. Loss four or five hundred dollars.
Another building on Cadwalader street, owned by Mrs. Dobbins, and occupied by Ashton S. Hutchinson, as an Ingrain Carpet Manufactory, with a Dye-house and a quantity of material. Loss $1500. Mr. Hutchinson, in his efforts to rescue some of his property from destruction, received several shots in his face and arm. The wounds are not serious.
The frame house of Mr. John Brown, in Cadwalader street, above the Hibernia Hose House, was destroyed. Loss not ascertained.
The two frame houses, at the corner of Master and Cadwalader streets, which were burned to the ground, belonged to John Carroll, and also two other frames adjoining. Loss sixteen hundred dollars. The tenants lost all they had, say about two hundred and fifty dollars. It was in one of these houses that the seven hundred dollars in silver was when it burned down, and but little of it having been recovered, this may be added to the other loss.
The loss in the burning of the Catholic Church of St. Michael, the parsonage house and furniture and or- naments, and the Sisters of Charity's Seminary, is estimated at not less than seventy-five thousand dollars.
Of the five frame buildings on the right of the Church, which were consumed, a three and two two-story frames belonged to Benjamin Hutchinson, Esq., who estimates his loss at two thousand five hundred dollars, and the other two belonged to Mr. Francis McCreedy and were valued at one thousand eight hundred dollars.
The loss to Mr. Joseph Corr, whose house at the corner of Phoenix and Second streets, opposite the Seminary, was sacked, is about one thousand five hundred dollars.
The loss to Mr. McAleer, whose two large bricks at the corner of Second and Master streets were burned, is about three thousand dollars. The tenant of one of them, named Rice, lost about six hundred dollars. A frame house back of this, owned by John Daley, which was burned, was valued at about four hundred dollars.
In estimating this destruction of property, we have not taken into account a vast amount of material in the houses occupied by workmen, nor of houses, the very sites of which have been obliterated, and we feel warranted in believing that the destruction of property amounts to much over what we have estimated.
In addition to this we have to add the loss at St. Augustine's, and we will find that damage has been done to the county of Philadelphia, in a sum rising a quarter of a million of dollars; and this, beside the loss of life, and the deep moral stain which has been inflicted on the community. It appears that though this was a riot against the Catholics, yet the loss has also fallen heavily upon Protestant owners and tenants of property.
On the whole, quiet now appeals to be restored - we hope it may indeed be so; and that our city will never again be disgraced by similar scenes of outrage and disorder.
The latter, when in a body, presented a formidable appearance, attracted much attention and looked like men who intended to use their weapons, should there be occasion for them, and we believe their presence tended to cool the angry spirit of the mob, as much if not more, than all the rest of the armed military and civil posse put together. Each “Border” was armed with a brace of pistols, of no mean size, a large knife of the “Bowie” order, some twelve inches in the blade, a cutlass which, when wielded by a powerful and active hand, would cleave a man to the shoulders, and a boarding pike or lance, about eight feet in length; an ugly instrument to deal with, and quite convenient to dig a hole under a fellow’s ribs. This fine body of men were under the immediate command of a gallant lieutenant of the Princeton, and several dashing middies, all armed cap-a-pie, who looked and behaved remarkably well, eliciting the admiration of the thousands who witnessed their erect and warlike bearing, as they marched through our streets. Captain Stockton, his officers and crew, deserve the thanks of the community, for their prompt and efficient aid in the hour of need.
It being Sunday, the detachment marched through our streets without the accompaniment of martial music, and visited the scenes of apprehended attack, and the Catholic churches throughout the different parts of the city, where guards had been placed.
Five Thousand Military Under Arms. Fourteen Killed and Fifty Wounded, The U. States Government applied to for Aid. The Governor and Commander-In-Chief at the Head of the Volunteer Forces.
On the morning of the 5th of July an attack was made upon a party who were encamped at Fisher's woods, by a band of ruffians. We mention the circumstance as a part of the history of the times, and as among the abetting causes of the recent riots. The encamped would seem to have been the commissariat department of the procession of the day previous, and had, for convenience, remained upon the ground where the pic-nic dinner was held, with their dishes, &c., &c. While they were quietly sleeping, they were suddenly attacked by a band of ruffians, about thirty in number, armed with bludgeons, &c., &c. Several of the encamped party were most inhumanly beaten - stagings were pulled down, crockery destroyed, and four American flags were torn up, burned, or carried away. The ruffians who made the attack, decamped as suddenly as they came, and without being recognised. On Monday, a committee of the persons attacked, published a card, detailing the circumstances, and offering a reward of one hundred dollars for the detection of the ringleaders.
In this card, no charge was made against any sect or party, religious or political, as having made or abetted the attack - and we find that the best informed among the Native Party, do not charge it upon the Irishmen. It probably grew out of some difficulty which has not been made public. Nor, so far as we know, did any Philadelphia paper, of Saturday, (on Friday there were none published,) charge the attack upon foreigners. But rumor, with her thousand tongues, exaggerated and circulated the story all on Friday and Saturday, making a comparatively small, though outrageous attack, a murderous matter, and distinctly charging it upon the Irishmen. The four torn flags, in connexion with the torn flag of Kensington memory, (which was borne in the procession of the 4th,) added fuel to the flame which was smouldering among the more excitable portion of the population, and wanted only an immediate aggravation to break out. We know that the charge against the Irishmen as the authors of the attack was made, because it found its way into some distant newspapers, through correspondents. Whoever were the party who began this attack, they began the riots.
The next incident - the proximate cause of the disturbance, was the discovery, that, on Friday, muskets were taken into the church of St. Philip de Neri, in Southwark. There are various statements relative to this matter, as to how the guns came there, nor have we yet seen an entirely reliable and official account. One statement is, that a company of volunteers had been organized and detailed, for the defence of the church, under command of Wm. H. Dunn, a brother of the officiating Priest of St. Philip; and that twenty-five muskets were furnished from the State Arsenal.
A gathering of thousands of people immediately took place, and the district watch and magistrates exerted themselves successfully, to prevent any violence until the arrival of the Sheriff, who had been sent for, and who promptly came to the church, having on the way down called on General Patterson with a request for aid. On the appearance of the Sheriff an examination was called for. After a search of about half an hour, the Sheriff and Aldermen came out with about twelve muskets, with bayonets, which they had found in the interior. These were given to the volunteer posse, who stationed themselves in front of the Church, and tried the guns with the ramrods, and proved to the crowd that they were not loaded. They then marched off to the Commissioners' Hall, where they deposited them. The Sheriff then addressed the crowd to the following effect :-
“I have, in company with Aldermen Hortz and Palmer, been into the Church, and have taken possession of all the arms we were able to find. A number of your own citizens, selected by your own Aldermen, are here to prevent any more arms from being taken in, as well as to protect the Church from injury. I therefore beg of you all, as good citizens, to disperse, and retire to your homes. Further measures will be taken to-morrow to allay the excitement and to preserve the peace."
A portion of the assemblage here cheered the Sheriff, and a few of those around retired, but the great body remained upon the ground as late as 11 o'clock. As matters still looked ominous, Mr. Wright Ardis, (one of the wounded in Kensington,) addressed the crowd, and selecting a posse of twenty men, entered the church with the Sheriff, and perhaps one or two of the Aldermen of the District. A shower springing up, the crowd in a great measure dispersed.
At about 12 o'clock the City Guards, Captain Hill, came upon the ground. Meantime Mr. Ardis, with his posse, and Alderman McKinley, had found in the church, in addition to the 12 muskets taken out before - 53 muskets and fowling pieces, 10 pistols of different kinds, a keg of powder, and a box of cartridges. Of the guns found, 23 were loaded, some so heavily that they could not have been fired without bursting the pieces. The greater part of the guns were "cancelled" or condemned United States arms. There were also found slugs, and bayonets fastened to poles, to use as pikes. In the church were found a number of the congregation, the Rev. Mr. Dunn, and others, who were prepared to defend the building in case of an attack.
The military then took possession of the building. The arms were taken out, and carried to the Commissioners' Hall. The crowd outside were addressed in a brief speech by the officer in command, and given five minutes to disperse in. The men found in the Church were taken before Alderman McKinley, and put under bonds to keep the peace, and on Saturday morning all was apparently quiet.
It may be well to state here that these guns were put in the Church previously to the 4th of July, and that the Church on that night was garrisoned by 150 men, in anticipation of an attack. It is stated on what appears to be competent authority, that a portion of the "cancelled" arms, seeming untrustworthy, were sent to a gunsmith (previous to the 4th) to be put in order. It was his returning them to the Church on Friday, which made the fact public that arms were there; and of course it was to be expected, that the guard of the night previous would rally when the building was menaced.
The City Guard held possession of the Church on Saturday morning; and during the day, though large crowds gathered, no violence was attempted. But the story of the seventy or eighty stand of arm found in the Church was doing its work among the multitude, and was beginning to be retailed from mouth to mouth, creating immense excitement. Alderman Saunders, in a speech, besought the throng to retire, and in doing so, he assured them that every weapon and all ammunition had been removed from the Church, and that there was no cause for further excitement. He begged all to use their exertions to allay the present ill feeling.
About half past two o'clock in the afternoon Gen. Cadwalader rode into the street on horseback, and, in a short address to those gathered about, endeavored to pursuade them to retire to their homes, but without having any effect. In reply to questions put to him as to the authority by which arms were taken into the Church, he stated that an order for twenty muskets had been issued under the authority of the Governor, and they had been delivered before he knew any thing of the order. He then repeated his endeavors to persuade them to disperse, but he had to retire without being able to accomplish any thing.
During the afternoon on Saturday, Gen. Hubbell, having learned that Wm. H. Dunn, who had been elected as captain of a new company was an unnaturalized citizen, proceeded to his house, in company with Dr. Stafford, and demanded his commission papers - these were given up, and of course the company was disbanded.
The excitement was increasing every hour. Women seemed more earnest than men, in their conversation upon these most exciting topics, and some of them used language most bitter and inflammatory. As night approached, the crowd swelled, till at last the place before the Church, and up and down the street in each of the four directions, became a dense mass of human beings. Extra constables were sworn in, and large bodies of peace police organized - but every incident, as is usual, only swelled the excitement. If a man tripped or stumbled, it caused a rush - the mass, of course, eagerly claiming to know the meaning of every motion into which they were compelled -each ignorant as the other.
St. Philip's Church is situated in Queen street, between Second and Third streets; and it may be as well to remind our distant readers that the streets here cross each other, with few exceptions, at right angles, and (the larger streets) at regular intervals. The first street to the North, or "above" Queen, is Catharine, and the next German. On the South, or below, the next street to Queen is Christian. There are in the neighborhood a vast number of narrow alleys, which placed the soldiery under great and fatal disadvantages during subsequent stages of the proceedings.
At 7 o'clock, the Sheriff arrived from the city with a posse of about one hundred and fifty strong. With this force he succeeded in driving the throng that was congregated there towards the east end of the street. When all was clear from Second to Third street, lines of men were stationed, who prevented all ingress, except to those living within the square.
During the evening the military force was increased by the presence of the Mechanic Rifle, Washington Blues, Cadwalader Grays, Markle Rifle, and City Guards. The crowd gradually increased in number and turbulence. About 11 o'clock the Junior Artillerists arrived with three field pieces; these were stationed at Second, Third, and Queen streets, commanding every avenue to the Church. Gen. Cadwalader then, with a platoon of men, charged upon the throng in Second street below Queen street, driving them down to Christian street. The same measures were adopted up Second and in Queen street, above Third and below Second, and a good many arrests were made by the military and police. In Third street, matters appeared to have a serious aspect. Stones having been thrown, and the officers in command struck by them, preparations were made to discharge the field piece stationed there. The address of Gen. Cadwalader, begging the mob to disperse, was received with groans and hisses, and he was bantered and dared to fire!
As this was a crisis, Gen. C. slowly and distinctly gave the command to take aim! The crowd quailed and were disposed to waver, when Hon. Charles Naylor, late a member of Congress, stepped before the gun, and told the general, as in one account it is stated, that he "had no right to fire!" Other accounts say that he countermanded the order, or called upon Gen. C. to do so; and said if any one was killed he would be the first. He was immediately arrested, by order of the general, and put under guard, in the basement of the church. The mob cried out for his release, but the steady front preserved by the military awed them, and the mob gradually dispersed. Wherever any sign of disturbance was shown, immediate arrests were made under the direction of the military. Their moderation, firmness and decision had preserved peace, only to be broken on the next day, with most fearful consequences.
In the morning, the district seemed almost entirely deserted, and the military were drawn off, with the exception of the Markle Rifles, the Mechanic Rifles, and the Hibernia Greens, who took charge of the church and relieved the City Guards. About 11 o'clock, the crowd which had collected, began to threaten that if Mr. Naylor was not released, the church should be attacked. Up to this time, no guns had been discharged on either side. Nor do we believe any person supposed, except a band of desperadoes, that the Sabbath was to furnish this first instance in which the civil authorities of the country, supported by the citizen soldiery, who had endured taints, blows, hisses, and insults, without retaliation, were to be attacked by an armed mob.
A four pounder, loaded to the muzzle, was dragged to the front of the church, by some villains, and a demand was then made for the release of Mr. Naylor. One of the Aldermen of the district, Mr. Hortz, defeated their villainous and murderous purpose, by pouring water into the priming; and thus foiled or diverted, pieces of scantling were brought, the door was broken in, and just at this moment Mr. Naylor, having been conditionally liberated, made his appearance, was loudly cheered, and led off an immense concourse as he went from the church to his residence. Meanwhile, a portion of the desperadoes were in Christian street, with an eighteen pound cannon, which they fired at the circular windows in the rear of the church, near the top.
The gun was taken down to the wharf for the purpose of reloading, and about 1 o'clock it was brought back again, and with it another piece, regularly mounted on wheels, was posted in rear of the church. One of them, loaded with large pieces of iron, was discharged, but with little effect on the wall, the missiles with which it was charged rebounding to a distance of a hundred yards, to the greatest fright of the neighbors.
At this time, Thomas W. Grover and Lewis C. Levin arrived; and the latter, mounting one of the pieces, made an address to the crowd. That portion of a crowd which generally gather in case of riots to look on, assembled around him, and listened to his speech, during which he was repeatedly cheered. But at the same time stones were flying against the walls and the window on the left side of the altar.
Mr. Levin was followed by Mr. Grover and, others, who succeeded in pacifying the crowd so far that they promised to spare the church if the Hibernia Greens were taken out of the building. This was at last done, and the Markle Rifles and Mechanic Rifles came out, guarding the Hibernia Greens. They proceeded together up Second street as far as German, a crowd following and cheering the rifle company, but pelting the Greens as often as they could get a chance. At German street, the Greens rapidly retreated, some of them firing their muskets as they fled. No other injury was done than the wounding of one or two of the crowd, and in the terrible beating which several of the Hibernian Greens received from the mob. Meantime the cannon had been taken away from the rear of the church, through the efforts of the more orderly citizens.
The Hibernia Greens were hunted several squares by the mob, and one of them in particular was so badly handled that his situation continues precarious. The treatment they received showed how futile is anybody's promise made in behalf of a mob.
Mr. Levin, Mr. Grover and others who had pledged themselves that the church should be saved, had hard work to keep the mob out. While they were addressing those who would listen, others were breaking the church windows; and although the main door was manfully defended by those who had pledged themselves to do so, the mob broke down the yard wall, and, entering at a side door, dispersed over the building. The defenders of the church now gave up the front door as hopeless, and the building was filled with people.
The protectors of the church still united their endeavors to persuade the people from any violence. In this they were aided by a great many persons who flocked in for no other purpose.
After they had possession for about an hour, a smoke was seen issuing from the cellar. A few persons went down and extinguished it in a short time. The throng then gradually left the building, and at last it was taken possession of by a committee of twenty, who guarded the doors and allowed no one to enter, but all to go out that desired to go.
So ended the Sabbath. All seemed becoming quiet in Southwark, the mob having risen in arms, and gained a victory over the small body of soldiers which had been left in charge. The mob had compelled the release of Mr. Naylor, who, it is said, pledged himself to exert his best endeavors to pacify them. They had demanded the dismission of the Greens, and acknowledged the concession to their wishes by pelting the company with stones and brickbats. They had promised the safety of the church, and despite the persuasions and heroic labors of many of the good citizens of Southwark, they had broken into the building, and fired it. It is due to Messrs. Levin, Grover, McElroy, Col. Jack and the others, and to the magistrates and many of the influential men of the district, to say that they labored with a zeal and efficiency which do them great credit. During the whole day, the respectable men in the District were laboring with all their might to avert the danger, and to divert and pacify the infuriated ruffians who, forming a comparatively small portion of every collection of people, outrage every law, under shelter of those who intend to be mere spectators, but are in effect shields for the rioters. It is in mercy to these unintentional abettors of the tumult that rigorous measures are withheld - but a crisis will arrive in which it is the painful duty of the authorities to preserve the peace and vindicate the majesty of the laws at all hazards.
Such a crisis had arrived. With their experience of the two days previous, to say nothing of the Kensington riots, it was manifest that it would not answer to leave the District to the tender mercies of the desperadoes, though nobody doubted either the will or the zeal of the good citizens of Southwark. But the civil authorities had been set at naught, and the small military force, in a certain sense, conquered. To leave the matter here, would have been, in the opinion of the authorities, not only dangerous to the immediate safety of the District, but a more pernicious precedent for the future.
Several hours notice was given to the District that the military were coming. A new proof had just occurred of the disposition of the mob. An Irishman had been arrested for some misconduct by Mr. Strine, one of the police, and taken to the lock up, under the Hall. While on the road, the mob made a rush and beat him, and kicked Mr. Strine several times in the ribs. The man was considerably beaten about the head, and the blood streamed from him profusely. He was at length taken into the Hall, and his wounds were properly attended to.
At about 7 o'clock the military arrived on the ground in great force. The crowd showed a most fatal determination to resist, and an attempt was made more than once to dismount Gen. Cadwalader. His bridle rein was seized, and without turning his head he disabled the arm with his sword which had attempted to stop his horse. In every place there seemed to be a resolute determination to disregard the military. The crowd were earnestly besought to retire, but obstinately disregarded the appeals of the officers. The military proceeded to take up the positions that had been assigned to them.
Cannon were placed so as to command Queen street, east and west, and Second street, north and south. Platoons of soldiers were stretched across the street at Third and Queen, Second and Queen, and around the Commissioners' Hall.
This disposition of force being made, Gen. Cadwalader informed Mr. Grover that the military would protect the church, and that the citizen force might be discharged, which was done, the men marching out two and two and mingling quietly with the crowd. On receiving the church from the voluntary police, General Cadwalader said to Mr. G., “Mr. Grover, you deserve the thanks of all good citizens for what you have done this day;" a sentiment which is echoed by all who know the circumstances.
But the affair had reached its turning point - from riot to civil war. The crowd in Queen street refused to give way. The soldiers were then commanded to charge, but the crowd resisted and stood before the bayonets. While the committee were going out of the church a collision occurred between the soldiers and citizens at the corner of Second and Queen. Capt. Hill of the City Guards, was disarmed and thrown down. An attempt was made to stab him with his own sword; - there was imminent danger that he would be trampled to death - at this moment the lieutenant of the Guards gave the word - fire!
Groans and shrieks filled the air, and the crowd now broke in all directions. Every body was struck aghast at the performance of a terrible duty, often threatened by proclamation, but habitually disregarded, and for a time a terrible quiet reigned, disturbed only by the groans of the wounded, and the shrieks of the women.
The number wounded in this first discharge, it is impossible to know. Among the killed was Mr. Isaac Freed, a resident of Spring Garden, who received a shot through the chest, and survived only a very few moments. He was mistaken for Mr. Jacob Korndaffer, and taken to his residence in Second street, to die. Mr. William Crozier, of Plumb street, was killed almost instantly - his whole face shot away. James Linsenberger, a lad, apprenticed to a druggist at the corner of Sixth and Parrish, was shot through the hip, and is since dead. Many were wounded, and among others Mrs. Lisle, wife of Capt. Lisle, in Front below Queen, who was leaving a house where she had been visiting, and receive a ball through her arm. Three or four others were killed at the first fire, when, indeed, nearly all the execution known to have been done by the military occurred. The death and wounds of those who fell at this time in the evening are in a certain light accidents, being the result of their fatal temerity, - in many cases mere curiosity. Two vollies were fired, one up, and one down Second street.
After this there was a rush on the part of a portion of the crowd for arms. Terribly exasperated, the mob - that is to say the active portion, now became regular assailants of the military. They broke into the Hall, and took therefrom a considerable number of the muskets, which had been brought from the Church. Threats were made against a number of soldiers, who were stationed in the lower part of the Hall, and finally a gathering was had at the Hay Scales, near the Wharton Market, below the Southwark Railroad, and about 9 o'clock, a body of men came down Federal street preceded by a four pounder cannon, roughly mounted and drawn with ropes. The men who followed in the rear were armed with muskets in part, and with other instruments of offence. They proceeded to Front street, and up Front street to Queen, where they quietly placed the cannon at the middle of the junction of the street, so as to range along Queen street towards Second, at which latter street a body of military and a six pounder were placed. The darkness favored their operations, and they were undisturbed until they had fired the piece, which was heavily loaded with fragments of iron, that had been hastily collected. At the same time the mob fired with muskets in the same direction, from such covered positions as they could find, and the fire was immediately answered by a volley from the military, and the discharge of the field piece. The firing on both sides was then kept up at intervals until about 10 o'clock, when it temporarily ceased. The mob had at that hour two pieces, placed so as to range Queen street, and had also a fifteen pounder, which they could not use, because it was not mounted.
At 11 o'clock, Major General Patterson detailed the German battalion, with two field pieces, and the companies of Washington Cavalry, and First County Troop, under the command of General Roumfort, as a reinforcement, and the column immediately moved to the scene of action. The reports of the guns shook the houses in the vicinity - shattering windows and damaging furniture. Balls passed into many of them, and the inmates were compelled to retire precipitately by the back ways - leaving all their property behind them. In one instance an aged lady was obliged to be lifted over a fence, and while this was being done, a ball cut off the branch of a tree near by.
During the night, the military were kept as much as possible under shelter, but were exposed to continual discharges. Rifle balls whistled from alleys; and the heavy guns of the mob were wheeled about in perfect silence, in the darkness, and the first intimation of the approach of an enemy was the discharge of their pieces, raking the street. They were evidently well drilled and officered, and pursued their work with a satanic malignity without parallel. Wherever an object was seen to move it was greeted with rifle or musket balls, from the places where the assassins lay concealed. When the door of a shop occupied as a temporary hospital was opened, whoever stood or walked in the range of its light, served as a mark for the concealed murderers.
A man named John Cook, who is among the dead, was killed at the gun which he had fired twice upon the troops. At each time his fire was answered by a shot from the soldiers. At the third time his gun burned prime, and he was shot by the flash, as he neglected his previous precaution of getting out of the way.
The mob did not attempt to keep their places, but hauled their pieces out of the way of shot to charge, and came back in the darkness, with muffled wheels, to fire. Many of the mob must, however, be killed and wounded, of whom we have no report.
Among the incidents of the night, a party of soldiers sitting upon the steps of a house, left and crossed the street, to claim a portion of some food which some comrades had foraged - for food was scarce, and comfort still more so. It was done in a spirit of desperate sport, and was loudly condemned by their officers. On their return to their place, the steps were found broken with a charge of iron scraps, which, fired from the gun of the mob, had swept the place where they had been sitting. Cole chisels, pieces of glass bottles, stones, iron scraps, and all sorts of missiles, were among the articles with which the guns were charged. But we must close this account with a few incidents culled from various papers, as they have been reported.
The mob had four pieces of cannon, which were worked by sailors and watermen, with unexampled tact and ability. Their mode of attack was, to load at a distance, with pieces of iron and other metals, such as nails, pieces of chains, stonecutter's chisels, knives, files, spikes, broken bottles, &c. The wheels of the cannon were muffled, and three of them were used with great effect. One of the most fearful shots was that fired from all three cannons at once, in the following manner. One was placed on Queen street wharf, unknown to the military - one in Queen street between Sixth and Seventh - one in Third street, about four squares south of Queen. Slow matches were applied; and, as if previously understood, all three were fired at once - making dreadful havoc. They were no sooner fired than dragged off into hiding places, unheard and unseen. Long drag ropes had been attached to them, and they were whirled off in an instant, and before the military could return the fire with any effect.
The greatest mischief was from the gun in Third street, which raked files of military stationed across that street at Queen. The State Fencibles, the Germantown Washington Artillery, and the Germantown Blues, lost several of their men by that fire. Their names will be found in the list of killed and wounded.
No sooner was the tramp of cavalry horses heard, than ropes were extended across streets, which tripped the horses, and in most instances, threw their riders, when the mob pelted them with stones and other missiles from hiding places. Before daylight, the military seized and carried off three of the pieces of cannon which had been used by the mob. They observed them pulling one from its secret place, and made an attack - the mob fled, and the military took the cannon.
All along Queen street, above and below the church for some distance, presented a truly warlike appearance. Window shutters, doors, fronts of houses, trees, tree-boxes, awning posts, lamp posts, pumps, watchboxes, and signs, are all pierced with balls and shot; and the pavements, gutters, streets, steps, and doorjambs stained with blood. In some places it flowed down the gutters - this was mostly the blood of the military, drawn by the fire of the mob.
At one time during the night, for about two hours, all communication with the Major General, by his aids, was suspended. Ruffians were stationed in hiding places, along the streets over which the aids rode, and they were fired upon, intercepted, and stones, brickbats, &c., hurled at them. None of them were injured, however.
General Patterson sent a messenger express to Washington, to the President of the United States, with a request for an order for the U. States troops at Carlisle, in this State; for those at Fort Mifflin, and for Captain Ringgold's Flying Artillery, at Fort McHenry, Baltimore, to be here at the earliest moment. He also sent, by express, a messenger to Harrisburg, asking the Governor to order troops from Lancaster, Harrisburg, and other places in the State, to proceed to Philadelphia forthwith.
All was comparatively quiet, if we except the movements of the military at different points, the frequent arrival of country troops, giving the city the aspect and bustle of a garrison town, and the knots of men at every corner, anxiously discussing the terrible events of the day and night previous. No violence took place after day-light on Monday morning, though bitter threats were made, and it was said that tremendous preparations were going forward by the rioters.
During the afternoon, a committee from the Commissioners of the District of Southwark, waited upon Major General Patterson, and requested him to withdraw the troops at 4 o'clock, pledging themselves to preserve the peace in the District. The General replied that if the Commissioners would satisfy him that they were able, and could preserve the property and peace of the District, he would issue an order for the withdrawal of the troops.
A Committee also waited on the Sheriff for the same object, and, that, after a consultation with the Judges of the Court of Quarter Sessions, the Sheriff and Major General concluded, from the Court's recommendation, to withdraw the troops, and General Patterson then issued an order to withdraw the troops. The Country Board, by advice of the County Commissioners, joined in the recommendation. The following is the correspondence which took place upon the subject.
Richard Vaux 1816-1895 Philadelphia Lawyer and Politician First Police Commissioner of Philadelphia following the consolidation.
Morton McMichael Philadelphia County Sheriff 1843-1846
Very Rev. Terence Donaghoe Served as First Pastor of St. Michael’s Parish.
Brigadier General George Cadwalader Commanded the First Brigade of the Pennsylvania State Militia
Francis Patrick Kendrick Bishop of Philadelphia 1830-1851
Rev. Mr. Moriarty Pastor of St. Augustine’s Church
Major General Robert Patterson Commander of the forces during the riots of 1844
Southwark, July 8th, 1844. Major General Robert Patterson: xn Sir - From the representation of a number of citizens of this District, we are persuaded that if the military be removed from the neighborhood of St. Philip's Roman Catholic Church, in Queen street, order will be immediately restored, and the citizens will protect the Church. We give our every exertion for the furtherance of the object. We do not hesitate to say that peace and good order will be immediately restored.
With much respect, we are respectfully,
James Saunders, Aldermen
Southwark Hall, July 8th, 1844.
Extract from the Minutes of the Commissioners of Southwark
"Resolved, That it is the opinion of this Board of Commissioners, that the continuing of the military force, now in this District, has a tendency to keep in existence, the present excitement, and that if the troops, now occupying the public streets of Southwark, are not withdrawn, there will be probably an additional shedding of blood."
"Resolved, That Messrs. Paynter, Tanner and Smith, be a Committee from this Board, to call upon Gen. Patterson, and advise with him, upon the expediency and propriety of withdrawing the military now on duty,
in the District of Southwark."
A true copy.
Attest - JOHN OAKFORD.
HEAD QUARTERS, 1st Div. P. M.
Philadelphia, July 8th, 1844.
Messrs. Paynter, Tanner and Smith, Committee of
the Commissioners of Southwark.
GENTLEMEN: - I have examined the extract from the minutes of the Commissioners of Southwark, which you handed me this morning.
It is my desire to preserve peace, and not to retain possession of any church or dwelling, if the civil authorities are competent for their protection and defence.
I will, therefore, without hesitation, place the Church under the care and protection of the civil authorities, as soon as I receive notice that they are able and ready to defend it.
Very respectfully, your obedient servant,
Signed, R. PATTERSON.
Southwark, July 8th, 1844.
Extracts from the Minutes of the Commissioners of Southwark
Col. Paynter, from the Committee appointed to confer with Major General Patterson, upon the expediency and propriety of withdrawing the military guard now on duty in the District of Southwark, reported a communication in writing, from General Patterson, in which he states that - "I will, without hesitation, place the Church, under the care and protection of the civil authorities, as soon as I receive notice that they are able and ready to defend it."
Which having been read and considered, It was Ordered, That the Clerk of this Board, be directed to communicate to Major General Patterson, in writing, and personally, that in the opinion of this Board, the civil authorities of the District are able and ready to defend the Church.
A true extract –
Attest, JOHN OAKFORD, Clerk.
SHERIFF'S OFFICE, July 8th, 1844.
Major General Patterson:
Sir - The Aldermen of the District of Southwark, have given me notice that they are abundantly able to protect the property and peace of the District of Southwark. I learn, also, that the Commissioners of that District, have officially made a similar declaration; and, in view of these facts, I would respectfully suggest that the troops now having charge of St. Philip's Church, Southwark, should be relieved. You are, therefore, requested to order them to such other points as you may deem best suited to their comfort and repose, holding them in readiness to act, when necessary, at such places as may be menaced.
The troops remained still under arms, to the number of between four and five thousand, having been largely reinforced from the country. Governor Porter arrived in town on Monday afternoon, and issued the following General Orders:
DAVID R. PORTER, Governor of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, Commander-in-Chief, &c.
ORDERS AS FOLLOWS.
The Governor and Commander-in-Chief deeply regrets that the renewal of riot, disorder and bloodshed, has again compelled him to repair to the city for the purpose of order. A crisis has arrived of the most appalling character, in which every good citizen is called upon by the highest obligations of duty to stand forward in the maintenance of the Laws. The origin of the existing disturbances sinks into utter insignificance, when compared with the disastrous consequences that must inevitably result from their continuance. Whatever opinion any citizen may have entertained at the outset of these disturbances, as to the cause, no man can view without the most poignant feeling, the deplorable state of things, already produced, and certain to succeed, if they are not immediately arrested. The question is now, shall an irresponsible mob, or the regular constituted authorities be forced to yield. No good citizen who understands the nature, and desires to enjoy the blessings of our free institutions, will hesitate an instant under which standard to rally. The friends of peace, order, law and liberty, will put forth their utmost might in supporting the legal authorities in the discharge of their duty. Those who are enemies to these sacred objects will aid and countenance the efforts of the insurgents.
The Commander-in-Chief feels great satisfaction in announcing his entire approbation of all the measures that have been adopted by Major General Patterson, as well as of the High Sheriff for quelling and dispersing the tumultuous assemblages of persons that sought to intimidate and drive from the ground the military force, while peacefully engaged in performing its duty. The retribution has indeed been terrible, but it was alike unavoidable and justifiable. If the laws cannot be maintained without the use of force, then force becomes as much an act of patriotism as of duty, and must be applied when the awful necessity arises. This remark is made in the hope that no repetition will be required of this most painful and terrific remedy.
Orders have been issued to the Majors General of several of the nearest Divisions, to have all the Volunteer Companies under their command in readiness to march at a moment's notice, and in pursuance of this order, a large force will be mustered to repair to the scene of disturbance at any hour which may be designated.
THE COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF ORDERS.
1. That Major General Patterson detail as large a force as may be necessary to check, and occupy, all the streets, lanes, alleys, and places menaced with attack, and take immediate charge of all such places, and protect them from intrusion and assault.
2. That Major General Patterson to station and distribute his force as to command all the streets and other assailable points, to disperse or arrest, as may be necessary, all those persons who may assemble in considerable bodies for the purpose of exciting to riot, tumult, and disorder.
3. That Major General Patterson adopt the most prompt and efficient steps to disperse riotous assemblages as soon as they begin to form, and before they have time and opportunity to mature and carry into execution their mischievous intentions.
4. That Major General Patterson treat all persons found with arms in their hands, or in possession of cannon, or aiding and abetting those who have, and who have not reported themselves for service to the Commander-in-Chief, as open enemies of the State, seeking to destroy the property and lives of the Citizens, and to trample on its laws.
5. The Volunteers from other Divisions, as they reach this place, will report themselves to Major General Patterson, and act in obedience to his orders.
In obedience to a spirit of considerate forbearance, the Military force has been withdrawn from St. Philip's Church, and a relief stationed there of the civil posse, at the instance, and under the direction, of the Magistrates of the District. This measure, it is presumed, will furnish an appeal to the reason and patriotism of the Citizens which will not be in vain; but, should it unfortunately prove to be unavailing, the most decisive steps will be taken. Not only the military force now here, but that ordered to be in readiness, will be called to this place, and so employed, that every person found with arms in their hands, or in their houses, will be pursued to the utmost, and brought to punishment for their temerity and crimes.
Thus far the conduct of the citizen soldiery has been distinguished by equal bravery and forbearance, and the Commander-in-Chief has no doubt, in any future emergency, they will continue to be actuated by the same determination to do their duty.
All well-disposed persons are cautioned to refrain from joining or countenancing any riotous assemblages in any part of the city and county of Philadelphia, either as actors or spectators. Prompt and efficient measures will be taken to disperse them; and it is difficult, in so doing, to distinguish between the guilty and the innocent.
Riot and bloodshed must be terminated at once, the duty of effecting this, rests with the executive; and those who act under his orders, and whatever the hazard, this duty shall be faithfully and fearlessly performed. By order of
DAVID R. PORTER,
Gov. of the Com. of Penn., and Commander-in-Chief
ADAM DILLER, Adjt. Gen. P. M.
HEAD-QUARTERS, Phila., July 8, 1844.
The following is a list of the dead and wounded, so far as we have been able to complete it. It does not include all, however, for the number of wounded cannot be less than fifty, and the dead must amount to fourteen or more. The military have behaved with wonderful courage and forbearance, and the services of the country troops as well as our own cannot be too highly rated.
LIST OF THE KILLED AND WOUNDED.
Capt. J. R. Scott, of the Cadwalader Grays, badly wounded in the side.
Col. Pleasanton, badly bruised with a spent ball.
_____Gardner of the Washington Cavalry.
Serjeant Marston, of the First State Fencibles slightly wounded.
James S. Crawford, of the Washington Artillery, of Germantown, wounded in the left shoulder, and taken to the Hospital.
First corporal, Henry G. Troutman, of the Germantown Blues, wounded in the groin. Since dead.
Serjeant John Guyer, of the Germantown Blues, killed.
John Waterhouse, Jr., of the Germantown Blues, slightly wounded in the neck. The ball passed through his knapsack and grazed his neck.
Samuel Williams, of the Wayne Artillery, wounded in the shoulder.
Richard Ball, of the same company, wounded in the calf of the leg.
Charles Dougherty, of the same company, wounded in the cheek.
John Woolridge, of the Philadelphia Grays, slightly wounded.
Private Schriner, of the same company, slightly wounded.
Coulter Russell, of the City Guards, hit on the head with a brick-bat.
Private Morrison, of the same company, struck with a brick-bat, and slightly wounded.
Searjant Starr, of the Cadwalader Grays, hit with a brick-bat.
J. McCarren, a volunteer, wounded in the knee.
Richard Wagner, First Lieutenant of the Holmesburg Cavalry, wounded by a ball passing through his hand, and two spent balls on his body.
Private Linglay, of the same corps, badly bruised by his horse falling over the ropes.
Private Charles Williams, wounded in the hand.
The Holmesburg Troop captured a piece of cannon from the mob, and it was during the attack that the above accidents occurred.
James Lawson, who lives in Ninth street below Shippen, shot in the heel.
James R. Tully, Lombard street below Sixth, shot in the arm.
Mrs. Lisle, Front street, below Queen, shot in the left arm.
A boy, named William Manning, while standing on Queen street wharf, was dangerously wounded.
T. Street, a brother of the Home Missionary, was shot in both legs.
James Linsenberger, who lives in the drug store, corner of Sixth and Parrish streets, was shot through the hip - since dead
Mr. Freed, an elderly citizen, resident of Spring Garden - killed.
David Kithcart, shot in the abdomen, since dead.
John Heusled, wounded in the arm and cheek.
Thomas C. Saunders, mortally wounded in the breast. Since dead.
J. W. Barr, wounded in the shoulder blade.
A lad named Falkner, one of the Committee in charge of the Church, was wounded in the right arm at the first fire in the evening.
Henry Slack, bricklayer, wounded, carried to his home.
John Cook, an oysterman, and a member of the Weccacoe Hose Company - struck by two balls at one
time. One entering the groin - the other in the region of the heart. Killed instantly.
Lemuel Paynter, wounded.
Dr. Appleton, wounded in the leg and arm.
A young lady, 18 years of age, whose name we could not learn, shot with a ball through the thigh.
Mr. Baggs, wounded in the leg, residing in John st. above Front.
Henry Jones, wounded in the right shoulder, residing in Christian above Third.
T. D. Grover, received a bayonet through his coat.
Joseph Silby, Southwark, wounded in the shoulder and thigh - mortally.
Mr. Gay, residing in Penn street above South, wounded in both legs.
A carpenter, named William Crozier, residing in Plumb street, was killed instantly.
Edward McGuire, Carpenter street near Sixth, a bayonet wound in the face.
John Quin, slightly wounded.
A blacksmith, named Enos Waters, killed.
A pilot, named Spiel, is among the killed, and a man whose name is said to be Fairfield.
Joseph McDaniel, killed - a ball through the heart.
Gerhart Ellis, a German, who could not speak any English, a journeyman of B. Hulseman, in Queen st. below Front, was shot through the head with a musket ball while looking from the garret window. He had undressed himself to retire to bed, but had run to the window on hearing the noise which preceded the first firing.
WOUNDED, AT THE HOSPITAL.
William Manning, James W. Barr, citizens.
James Crawford, a volunteer, wounded in the arm - the limb since amputated.
J. McCarren, a volunteer, wounded in the knee.
John Heusted, wounded in the right arm.
Elijah Jester, wounded in the throat. Since dead.
James R. Tully, wounded in the right arm.
A woman named Jane Pennel, resident in Beck's alley, died from the effect of fright, occasioned by the firing at the riot on Sunday evening, the 7th instant.
The Philadelphia County Commissioners, on Monday night, acted with commendable despatch, in passing the following resolution:
Resolved, That the County Commissioners be and they are hereby authorized to offer a reward of five hundred dollars, for the future apprehension of every person that may be convicted of using any deadly weapons, or assisting, aiding or abetting those engaged in using any deadly weapon against the civil authorities or other persons acting by their orders in the suppression of the late riots and insurrectionary movements in the District of Southwark, or elsewhere; and also a reward of one hundred dollars for the apprehension and conviction of every person in any other manner engaged in such riots and insurrectionary movements in opposition of said civil authorities or other persons acting by their orders - the said rewards to be paid upon conviction of the persons so apprehended.
The following is a list of the principal arrests which have taken place in connexion with, and in consequence of the recent riots:
ON THURSDAY. Lewis C. Levin - to answer to the charge of inciting to riot and treason in the “Daily Sun," of which he is editor. Held to bail in $3,000 to answer, and in $1,000 to keep the peace.
John G. Watmough, charged with exciting language, held in his own recognizance in $1,000 to keep the peace for three months.
Samuel R. Kramer, editor of the Native American, held in $500 to keep the peace.
Wm. P. Hanna, exciting language and resistance of the Police, held in $1,500.
FRIDAY. No arrests of moment. A few disorderly persons for exciting language.
SATURDAY. Ethan Harwood, a young man employed in a china store in the city. Held in $13,000, to answer the charges of riot, treason and murder. He is charged with being an active rioter, and with being with one of the cannon. * [ He has since turned State’s Evidence, and made some disclosures, in which he charges a man named Stephen House with being concerned in the riots. ]
Wm. II. Springer, of Southwark. Wm. H. Everly testified that on Monday week, Springer, in the course of a conversation, said that he was sorry that the military were about to be withdrawn, for they would have fired brimstone at them, by which they would all have been killed. Mr. Springer was held to bail in $2,000, for further hearing.
Washington Conrad, charged with having knocked down Capt. Hill. Bail refused by Recorder Vaux.
Christopher Wren, charged with having gone with the mob and obtained guns. Held in S2,000. All the above except Mr. Springer were committed. They were conveyed to Moyamensing, in charge of a troop of horse.
Wm. R. Rodgers, held in $500 for insulting a sentinel, before the Girard Bank.
James Reese, held in $500 for inflammatory language before the head quarters in Green street. Wm.Smith held for the same offence.
SUNDAY. Wm. and David Simpson, inflammatory language. Held in $2,000.
MONDAY. No arrests of consequence were made of persons connected with recent riots, but Abraham Freymire was arrested by Constable Charles Roberts, on the charge of having set fire to the Pennsylvania Hall, in 1838, and committed to answer by Alderman Erety. The defendant has been absent from the city nearly all the time since the destruction of that building.
Hugh Develin, committed, charged with rioting in Kensington in May.
TUESDAY. John W. Smith was arrested by Hugh Cassady, the Police officer of Southwark, and carried before Judge Jones, charged with participating in the late riots in Southwark. Mr. Cassady identified him as one of the principle men engaged in directing the cannon against St. Philip's Church door, on the Sunday morning when Mr. Naylor was rescued. John W. Smith is the first name attached to the “Address of the Committee of Twenty," which was appointed by the crowd, on Friday night, to search the church for the concealed arms, and it is said that the prisoner is that individual. He was loitering about the vicinity of the Court House when arrested. The Police officer swears to him with great positiveness, and Judge Jones held him to bail in $13,000, to answer the charge of riot, treason, and murder. He was committed in default.
George Merrick, charged with being concerned in the burning of St. Augustine. Held to answer in $2,000.
John Turner, charged with participation in the Southwark riot, and committed. An attempt was made
at Spruce street wharf to rescue him.
WEDNESDAY. Andrew McLane surrendered himself, and after a hearing, was committed, charged as accessory to the murder of the Germantown soldiers, with riot and with mis-prison of treason. Bail was refused by Mayor Scott.
Joseph Black, a second-hand iron dealer, was held in $5,000 charged with selling iron, &c., to the rioters. His two sons were held in $2,000 each.
[The following extract is taken from the North American, edited by Col. Childs, in whose testimony, relative to the Southwark riots, we have full confidence.]
During the time the above occurrence (meaning the evacuation of the committee of citizens headed by Mr. Grover,) were taking place, which probably occupied about 8 minutes, the ground had been cleared to Third street, without difficulty. Toward Second street, however, the scene was different. Capt. Scott’s company were threatened, then pelted by several persons with brickbats and stones, one of which struck Sergeant Starr on the breast, and broke two of his ribs, and caused a stream of blood to flow from his mouth. Another of the same company received a severe blow. General Cadwalader gave notice that the ground must be cleared, and if necessary the officers should use force. The company was brought to a charge, and moved forward, in double quick time. Several persons in the crowd fell, but were not injured by the military, who succeeded in clearing the ground to Second street. There was, however, a determination evinced by a number of persons to seize their arms. About this time the defenders of the church came down Queen street in a body, on the south pavement, until they reached Second street, where they separated. Mr. Grover stepped out in front of the Cadwalader Greys, to try and pacify the crowd.
At this moment, some ten or fifteen persons in Queen, below Second street, advanced, and some of them ordered a sentinel on post in the street to retire. He coolly and repeatedly urged them to fall back, but they continued to advance. Captain Scott faced his company to the right, and moved them up to the house on the south-west side of Queen street; Capt. Hill at the same time marched his company forward, in order to form on Scott's left. He was opposed by most of the crowd, when he flourished his sword and ordered them to fall back. Most of those in the crowd were disposed to retire peaceably, but there were others, and not a few, who were bent on mischief. Believing that the forbearance shown by the military for the last ten years, would prevent them from firing, they seized several of the bayonets of the soldiers, who were at a charge, and attempted to force them out of their hands. At the same time one of Captain Hill's company received a severe blow, and the captain was seized, thrown down, and an attempt made to wrest the sword out of his hand. At this moment, when the arms of the soldiers were about being wrested by force out of
their hands, and not before, Capt. Hill gave the word to fire. There were upwards of thirty muskets discharged, and only seven persons killed or wounded, which shows conclusively that there was no disposition to take life, but that the troops were acting on the defensive. The crowd quickly dispersed, but those who had assailed the military instantly departed, procured arms, and returned to attack those sent to preserve the peace. The fearful occurrences of that night are well known.
In consequence of the many conflicting statements regarding the arming of the church, we give the following testimony showing that they had the highest authority for what they done.
Testimony of General Adam Diller. I am the Adjutant General of the State of Pennsylvania; there was an application made to me by Wm. H. Dunn, for muskets, soon after the Kensington riots; the authority by which he claimed them was a few lines from General Patterson. I told Mr. Dunn that the law pointed out clearly the authority under which arms should be delivered, and that his requisition was not sufficient; that he could not and ought not to have arms for any such purpose; he went away, and in a few days returned with a similar application; I sent him away again; about ten days after he brought an order from the Governor. The order is as follows:
Executive Chamber, June 13, 1844.
To ADAM M DILLER, Adjt. Gen. P. M.
Sir - On receipt of this, you will deliver to Wm. H. Dunn, Esq. 25 stand of muskets, taking from him at the same time his bond for re-delivery of the same in good order on or before the 1st day of February next. I am, respectfully,
David R. Porter
Upon his giving the usual bond, I gave him an order on the keeper of the arsenal for 20 old muskets, mistaking the number mentioned in the Governor’s orders; and Mr. Dunn only received these twenty; in a few days he sent a note, complaining of the mistake, and claiming the remainder. This note is as follows:
210 South Eighth street, June 21st, 1844.
GEN. ADAM DILLER;
Sir - Of the twenty muskets received out of the Arsenal by me, under your order, but four have got ramrods, and one of the bayonets is imperfect. As my bond is for the re-delivery of what ought to be considered perfect stand of arms, I will thank you to do what is right in the matter.
I will also require of you an order for the remaining five stand of arms, to perfect the number directed to be given me. Your ob't servant,
WM. H. Dunn.
Mr. Dunn gave a bond, with security, for the return of the twenty-five muskets on the Ist of February next;
he only received twenty, however; he never received any other arms of any description; when the Governor was here I had a conversation with him on the subject; he said Mr. Dunn had presented such strong recommendations in favor of his application, and, among others, a letter from Major General Patterson, that he did not feel at liberty to deny his request; no other arms than those mentioned have been placed in that or any other church to my knowledge; during the Kensington riots, after consultation with the Governor, arms were delivered on the requisition of the Mayor, for the purpose of arming the peace police of the various wards; these were all called in, however, before the Southwark riots commenced.
There are many ways in which muskets could be procured; there are sales at the United States' Arsenal, and various manufacturers of muskets for the United States, who sell those condemned as unfit for the service; the muskets delivered to Mr. Dunn, were most probably among those deposited at the arsenal by the military on their return from Southwark: among the fifty or sixty guns so deposited, are several shot guns.
18-year-old George Shiffler became a martyr for the Nativists, when it was claimed he was killed defending the American flag from the Irish mob.
Hibernia Hose Co. Kensington section, displaying handmade engine built in Kensington in the 1840’s. Located on Cadwalader Street, just north of Girard Ave, is where the first shot was fired that killed George Shiftler.
Woodcuts form the Newspapers depicting the riots’ hostility that appeared in penny newspapers during the 1840’s.
Lithograph of steam pumper and ladders of the Columbia Hose Co.
An altered American Flag that could be seen all over the Districts of Kensington, Richmond, Liberties and Southwark.
View of the United States Hose House and Apparatus, York Avenue and Tammany Street
Two Members of the Philadelphia Street Gang ”The Killers”
Pope Leo portrayed as a sly fox, waiting to take over the American Public Schools
This cartoon references anti-Catholic attitudes common throughout the 19th century that Catholics were anti-democratic and loyal primarily to the Pope. Here the pontiff dreams of presiding over "A Catholic America" that values "The Church First -- The Country Afterwards."
This cartoon reinforces the stereotype of the Irishman as an essentially combative troublemaker. Uncle Sam reprimands him, "Look here, you, everybody else is quiet and peaceable, and you're all the time a-kicking up a row!" The editorial that accompanied the cartoon asserted: "the raw Irishman in America is a nuisance, his son a curse. They never assimilate; the second generation simply shows an intensification of all the bad qualities of the first. . . .They are a burden and a misery to this country."
One criticism that was and is still made against immigrants is that they import poverty to the United States. Here, the lazy Irish back in Ireland wait for money, while in America, immigrants are forced to work for it. The accompanying editorial applauded Irish men's and women's hard work in America but deplored "naturalized citizens who pretend to be Americans," supporting radical troublemakers in the "turbulent old home"--the box in the right-panel inset is labeled "agitation and disturbance fund.”
Riots.-The neighbourhood of our city has been for some days past the scene of riot and bloodshed. It originated on occasion of a meeting of the Native American Party on Monday last, in Kensington, to express indignation at the disturbance of a former meeting by the Irish population of that District. The meeting went on without interruption, until the rain forced an adjournment to the Market House, where a scuffle occurred between two individuals. We borrow the account from the “Public Ledger.”
From what we could see and gather from persons on the spot, we believe the following was the origin of the affray:
After the re-organization of the meeting in the market house, and Mr. Levin had taken his position with the view of resuming his speech, some difficulty occurred on the western side of the market house, just inside, between two persons, named Fields and McLaughlin, which originated in some discussion, and led to an interference on the part of two or three others, one of whom, a young fellow, drew a pair of pistols, threatening to shoot the first man who should molest him. At this instant, a man who had taken some part in the affair stepped off towards the Hibernia Hose house, and defied him to fire. A shot then took place, which was followed by repeated discharges from both sides, from one of which Patrick Fisher received his wounds.
The contest continued for more than an hour. At dark, large bodies of men and boys were congregated at various points, and every thing indicated a resumption of the outrages. The Sheriff was on the ground after the severest part of the conflict, and was effecting arrangements to secure future peace and quietness. Those that were injured were engaged in the fight.
12 o’clock. - We have just returned from the scene of the riot. About 10 o’clock in the evening, a mob collected in the vicinity of Franklin and Second streets, and commenced breaking into the houses on both sides of the street, destroying the furniture, demolishing the windows, and rendering the houses completely uninhabitable. The inmates of all the dwellings in the neighborhood fled with precipitation, abandoning their homes to the ruthlessness of the mob.
This continued for some time without any resistance being offered. At length an attack was made upon a Seminary at the corner of Second and Phoenix streets, formerly occupied by the Sisters of Charity, and a number of persons were about tearing down and setting fire to the fence, when some persons advanced from above and fired a volley of ball and buckshot amongst the crowd.
On Tuesday a meeting of the Native Americans was called in the State House Yard, and they were invited to come armed for defence. After some speeches they adjourned to the scene of action in Kensington, and several thousands marched to the spot. We take the remainder of our statement from the “U. S. Gazette.”
Most of those present moved in a body to Kensington (at the corner of Second and Master streets) and proceeded to organize a meeting, but they had scarcely nailed up their flag, when a number of boys made an attack upon the Hibernia Hose house. A number of shot were then fired from houses in the vicinity toward the meeting, and the native Americans, after dispersing for a moment, rallied and attacked the hose house, took out the carriage, ran the hose off the reel, and then broke the apparatus up. An old tender, the property of the Washington Hose Company, which was also in the house, was broken up likewise. The Native Americans then (between 4 and 5 o’clock) took possession of the Market House, and for the next three hours, the shots were frequent from the houses in its western vicinity. - Men were seen lying upon the roofs of a row of houses fronting the Market; and in every place of concealment near the same place, others were occasionally discovered.
About five o’clock another attack was made upon the hose house, when a large new bell found in it was brought out into the open square and shattered to pieces. Shortly after this, a frame dwelling house, next to the hose house was fired, and from that time up to nine o’clock in the evening, the flames continued to spread without stay, until TWENTY-NINE houses were consumed, the greater part of them being upon Cadwalader street, and four upon the street facing the Market. About 7 o’clock the Market house itself caught fire, and at 9 o’clock lay in a heap of ruins.
At seven o’clock, the First Brigade, and two Cornpanies of the Third Brigade, came on the ground, under the command of Gen. Cadwalader, and formed on Master street, facing north. Cannon were stationed so as to range on the street facing the Market, and on Master street westward. A detachment of two Companies under command of Col. Murray, marched to the north end of the Market, and formed a cordon across the street. The Military had previously been formed in like manner on Master street.
The Sheriff then detached a number of his Constabulary force (which had preceded the Military on the march up) and proceeded to examine all the houses from which shots had been fired. In one of them a man named John Holmes, was found, and in the same room in which he was, was a rifle heavily loaded. He was brought out and consigned to the care of the military.
In the meantime General Cadwalader made a brief address to the great crowd assembled below Master Street, urging them to preserve peace, and to act in cooperation with the military. The whole affair rested in the hands of the law, and he was bound to see that the settlement was lawfully made.
He made no distinction - knew neither friend nor foe in the matter, and was determined at all hazards to see the majesty of the law vindicated. This brief address, of which we have hardly given the substance, seemed to meet the general approbation: and during the entire evening the crowd of persons collected seemed disposed to let matters rest in the hands of the civil and military force.
At 8 ½ o’clock, members of the Carroll Hose Company commenced to throw water upon the burning dwellings, and succeeded in stopping the progress of the fire northward. At nine o’clock, the United States Engine arrived on the ground, under escort of a detachment of the Lafayette Light Guards, and immediately went into service. The Assistance Engine shortly afterwards went into service, also under an escort of military, and shortly afterwards nearly the whole Fire Department was upon the ground. The fire was then stayed, but not until a vast amount of property was destroyed.
The number of wounded persons is considerable, and deaths amount in all to seven or eight, as far as we can gather from the newspaper accounts. The whole scene is one which every good citizen and good Christian must deplore, and the men who strive to fan the flame, instead of allaying it, are responsible for the blood that is shed. May peace and charity regain their reign!
Sheriff McMichael was unceasing in his efforts to put an end to the riots. The military were called out at four o’clock in the after- noon, and they were put in motion at seven o’clock. Had they arrived on the ground at four o’clock, the terrible destruction of life would have been prevented, and the conflagration would not have taken place.
A meeting of Catholics, we understand, was held last evening, at the Cathedral of St. John, for the purpose of considering and adopting measures to allay the excitement.
A placard, worded in the following manner, was posted about the streets in the early part of the day:
To the Catholics of the City and County of Philadelphia.
The melancholy riot of yesterday, which resulted in the death of several of our fellow beings, calls for our deep sorrow, and it becomes all who have had any share in this tragical scene to humble themselves before God, and to sympathise deeply and sincerely with those whose relatives and friends have fallen. I earnestly conjure you all to avoid all occasion of excitement, and to shun all public places of assemblage, and to do nothing that in any way may exasperate.
“Follow peace with all men, and have that CHARITY without which no man can see GOD.
+ FRANCIS PATRICK,
Bishop of Philadelphia.
Philadelphia, May 7th, 1844.
The excitement during yesterday afternoon and evening, was of the most intense character. In the vicinity of the scenes of violence, business appeared to be at a stand, and at every step one met little gathering of persons anxiously discussing the probable and terrible consequences of the outbreak, or narrating the latest act of violence out of the many with which the hour teemed. Many were actually frantic for revenge.
The scene during the continuance of the conflagration was awfully grand. A great sea of fire raged, the roaring noise of which was heard at a considerable distance, mingled with the crash of falling timbers or tumbling walls. People were hurrying hither and thither, anxiously endeavoring to save their property; and on the open lots adjacent, piles of furniture were heaped up promiscuously. Women and children, made houseless by the destruction of their homes, were gathered in the vicinity, and the whole scene had its appropriate climax in the glitter of the arms and accoutrements of the soldiers, the cannon and their guards, and the dense and dark mass of people by which the whole square was hemmed in.
The Military remained on the ground during the greater part of the night.
Wednesday, 5 o’clock, P. M.
We have just learned that ST. MICHAEL’S CHURCH has been burned down, in defiance of the military force stationed there to protect it.
The School House, lately occupied by the Sisters of Charity, is also burnt. Where these lawless acts are to end, cannot be told.
10 o’clock. St. Augustine’s Church, within the city, is now in a blaze, as also the dwellings attached to it.
This Stole stolen the evening of the fire, returned 20 years later
The Original St. Augustine’s Church - The burning of St. Augustine’s Church
The American order of United Mechanics, founded in Philadelphia the year of the riots. A secret society to aid only those of White Protestant Native born Americans. The center of this broadside seems to show a Masonic Compass and square emblem, but on closer examination, the center shows an arm and hammer, and not the letter “G” found in the Masonic emblem. This organization was rebuked by the Masons, and was never associated with them, although four of their founders were Freemasons. Other organizations that sprang up similar to this one were, The Order of the Star Spangled Banner, The Native Republican Party (not associated with today’s republican party), Order of United Americans, and the Famous Know – Nothings. These organizations were usually associated with Volunteer Fire Companies, Whig Politicians, and Political Muscle. These groups often operated with violence and with impunity.
The Newly Consolidated Philadelphia went from two square miles to its present size of 129 square miles. Once the Athens of America, the capital of the United States, the place where William Penn made everlasting peace with the Indians, once the largest city in America, is now the 5th largest in the United States. Kensington today is a hub-bub of Latino life with small pockets of Armenians and Saint Michael’s services their religious needs. Saint Augustine’s still stands today in the shadow of William Penn and its congregation are mostly of Philippine descent.